The relevance of physical forces on land-use change and planning processby Rosinda Leonor Pato, Paula Castro, Alexandre O. Tavares

Journal of Environmental Planning and Management

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The relevance of physical forces on land-use change and planning process

Rosinda Leonor Patoa, Paula Castrob & Alexandre O. Tavaresc a Research Centre for Natural Resources, Environment and

Society, Agrarian School, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra,

Coimbra, Portugal b Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences,

University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal c Centre for Social Studies and Department of Earth Sciences,

University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Published online: 18 Jun 2015.

To cite this article: Rosinda Leonor Pato, Paula Castro & Alexandre O. Tavares (2015): The relevance of physical forces on land-use change and planning process, Journal of Environmental

Planning and Management, DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2015.1035773

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2015.1035773

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Ju ne 20 15

The relevance of physical forces on land-use change and planning process

Rosinda Leonor Patoa, Paula Castro *,b and Alexandre O. Tavaresc aResearch Centre for Natural Resources, Environment and Society, Agrarian School, Polytechnic

Institute of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; bCentre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life

Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; cCentre for Social Studies and Department of

Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal (Received 30 July 2014; final version received 24 March 2015)

This study analysed the importance of physical forces on land-use change, on the planning framework in a Portuguese periurban area. A temporal matrix showing the trajectories of land transformation was obtained. A multivariate redundancy analysis explored the importance of physical parameters on temporal and spatial land-use change. A content analysis on urban or municipal master plans was made framing the importance of physical parameters on the planning process. The results highlighted a consistent trajectory of profound land-use changes with distinctive trajectories, with increasingly complex patterns with a limited dependence on physical variables. The trajectories were more related to the planning framework, where political actors and planning managers seemed to be most important. A theoretical model balancing three main components  physical forces, actors, and land transformation (DFA-C model) is proposed, reflecting the informal relationships between physical parameters and actors during the planning process.

Keywords: land-use change; physical parameters; planning framework; RDA 1. Introduction

Urban growth and urban land-use competition have led to deep structural changes in the composition and dynamics of the landscape, affecting the fragile rural-urban interdependency. The generation of a new set of patterns reflecting a dynamic process of transition from rural and urban areas to different urban forms highlights a representation of changes which imply a complex definition of driving forces (Gallent and Shaw 2007;

Pickett and Cadenasso 2009; Li, Zhou, and Ouyang 2013).

The growth of the human population and its migration from rural to urban areas has forced cities to expand into the surrounding environments (e.g. to cropland, pastures and forests) (Forman 1995; Verheye 2009; Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011; Kroll et al. 2012;

Wu et al. 2013). This creates significant environmental impacts on ecosystem functioning, meaning that this interface has to be recognised as a special spatial unit for planning proposals (Kasanko et al. 2006; Freiria and Tavares 2011; Dutta 2012; GomezBaggethun, and Barton 2013).

Understanding the physical and human causes and consequences of land-use and landcover change has become a challenge (Lambin, Geist, and Rindfuss 2006; Hersperger *Corresponding author. Email: pcastro@ci.uc.pt.  2015 University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2015.1035773

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Ju ne 20 15 et al. 2010), with land-change models serving as tools to help interpret the functioning of the land-use system and to support land-use planning and policies (Verburg et al. 2004; van Delden et al. 2011).

The discussion about the driving forces behind land-use change has intensified in recent decades (Bastian and Bernhardt 1993; Claessens et al. 2009; Feranec et al. 2010), reflecting efforts to monitor urban expansion and temporal dynamics. As pointed out by Verburg et al. (2004), Diogo and Koomen (2012), and Li, Zhou, and