Title: Novel preparation and characterization of human hair-based nanofibers using electrospinning process
Author: Mira Park Hye Kyoung Shin Gopal Panthi
Mohammad Mahbub Rabbani Al-Mahmnur Alam Jawun Choi
Hea-Jong Chung Seong-Tshool Hong Soo-Jin Park Hak-Yong
Reference: BIOMAC 4903
To appear in: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Received date: 20-11-2014
Revised date: 29-1-2015
Accepted date: 15-2-2015
Please cite this article as: M. Park, H.K. Shin, G. Panthi, M.M. Rabbani,
A.-M. Alam, J. Choi, H.-J. Chung, S.-T. Hong, S.-J. Park, H.-Y. Kim,
Novel preparation and characterization of human hair-based nanofibers using electrospinning process, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.02.024
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Ac ce pte d M an us cri pt 1
Novel preparation and characterization of human hair-based nanofibers using electrospinning process
Mira Parka,*, Hye Kyoung Shinb, Gopal Panthia, Mohammad Mahbub Rabbanib, AlMahmnur Alamc, Jawun Choic, Hea-Jong Chungd, Seong-Tshool Hongd, Soo-Jin Parkb,
Hak-Yong Kimc,** a Department of Organic Materials & Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University,
Jeonju, 561-756, South Korea b Department of Chemistry, Inha University,100 Inharo, Incheon, 402-751, South Korea c Department of BIN Fusion technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756,
South Korea d Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, 561-756, South Korea ––––––––– * Corresponding author: Tel: +82 63 2702351, Fax: +82 63 2704249
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (M. Park) ** Corresponding author: Tel: +82 63 2702351, Fax: +82 63 2704249
E-mail address: email@example.com (H. Y. Kim)
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Ac ce pte d M an us cri pt 2
Human hair-based biocomposite nanofibers (NFs) have been fabricated by an electrospinning technique. Aqueous keratin extracted from human hair was successfully blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The focus here is on transforming into keratin/PVA nanofibrous membranes and insoluble property of electrospun NFs. The resulting hair-based NFs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron
Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC), and
Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Toward the potential use of these NFs after cross-linking with various weight fractions of glyoxal, its physicochemical properties, such as morphology, mechanical strength, crystallinity, and chemical structure were investigated. Keratin/PVA ratio of 2/1 NFs with 6wt%-glyoxal showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and excellent antibacterial activity providing a potential application of hair-based NFs in biomedical field.
Keywords: Keratin; Electrospinning; nanofibers 1. Introduction
One problem we encounter in our everyday lives due to technological development is the contamination of our environment. Although mankind benefited from technological innovation during this phase of history, even after the Industrial Revolution, we are still suffering from a by-product of industrialization, the pollution of nature. Nowadays, we have attempted to use natural resources which can protect the nature. One of the most environmentally-friendly materials is keratin. Keratin is three-dimensional mesh structures associated structural fibrous proteins, moreover the hard keratins found in hair, wool, feather, nails, and horns have a sulphur content >3wt% . Keratins are composed of quite a number
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Ac ce pte d M an us cri pt 3 of disulfide bonds which have cysteine-rich structural proteins and significant mechanical properties due to its hard fibrous structure. Because of its insolubility in polar solvents like water, weak acids and bases, as well as non-polar solvents, limited numbers of methods are available for the extraction of keratin [2-4]. More than 300,000 tons of protein-rich hair wastes produced around the world each year. Hair wastes can be usable for regenerating water-soluble compounds through the reduction of disulfide bonds . To date, most of reports provide the broad overview of keratin based material obtained in various forms for biomedical applications  or for the fabrication of electrospun blend NFs by mixing with other polymers .
Electrospinning is a well-known and versatile technique to fabricate micro and nanofibers with high porosity and many biomedical applications such as wound dressing, tissue engineering scaffolds, and drug release . A number of researches have been studied on the function and composition of biomaterials produced by keratins [8-10]. Here we present the fabrication of human hair-based keratin/PVA NFs by electrospinning. In our previous work, we have successfully prepared the biocompatible hydrogels made by human hair .
Because of its low molecular weight (65-11 kDa) and poor mechanical properties , regenerated keratin is so difficult to handle that poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was blended with keratin aqueous solution. 2. Experimental
Urea, sodium disulfite (Na2S2O5), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), acetone (CH3COCH3), ethanol (C2H5OH), glyoxal solution (40 wt% in H2O), and PVA (Mw = 85,000 ~ 124,000 g/mol, 87-89% hydrolyzed) were purchased from the Sigma Aldrich, Co. (St. Louis, USA).
Human hair was obtained from local hair salons for free and double-distilled water was used for creating aqueous solutions. Keratin was extracted by sulfitolysis . The cleaned and