Microbial community composition shapes enzyme patterns in topsoil and subsoil horizons along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberiaby Jörg Schnecker, Birgit Wild, Mounir Takriti, Ricardo J. Eloy Alves, Norman Gentsch, Antje Gittel, Angelika Hofer, Karoline Klaus, Anna Knoltsch, Nikolay Lashchinskiy, Robert Mikutta, Andreas Richter

Soil Biology and Biochemistry


Microbiology / Soil Science


Characteristics of cryogenic soils along a latitudinal transect in arctic Alaska

C. L. Ping, J. G. Bockheim, J. M. Kimble, G. J. Michaelson, D. A. Walker

Belowground carbon allocation by trees drives seasonal patterns of extracellular enzyme activities by altering microbial community composition in a beech forest soil

Christina Kaiser, Marianne Koranda, Barbara Kitzler, Lucia Fuchslueger, Jörg Schnecker, Peter Schweiger, Frank Rasche, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Angela Sessitsch, Andreas Richter

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composition shapes enzyme patterns in topsoil and subsoil horizons alon

J€org Schnecker a, b, *, Birgit Wild

Norman Gentsch d, Antje Gittel e

Nikolay Lashchinskiy g, Robert M a University of Vienna, Department of Microbiology and b Austrian Polar Research Institute, Vienna, Austria c University of Vienna, Department of Ecogenomics and d Leibniz Universit€at Hannover, Institut für Bodenkunde e y, Depart ergen, N ranch of und that hydrolytic in mineral horizons d more strongly bee patterns in topsoil ommunity composiater content, soil pH patterns and SOM hysical stabilization atic breakdown. The izons, suggests that odifier for the usual er the CC BY license rg/licenses/by/4.0/). 1. Introduction

Extracellular enzymes break down soil organic matter (SOM) at every depth of the soil profile. Nonetheless most studies on enzyme activities focused on topsoil horizons in the upper 20 cm of the soil profile (e.g. Sinsabaugh et al., 2008; Wallenstein et al., 2009; Kaiser et al., 2010) although up to 60% of the carbon stored in soils are located below 30 cm (Jobbagy and Jackson, 2000). These subsoil * Corresponding author. University of Vienna, Department of Microbiology and

Ecosystem Science, Division of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, Althanstraße 14,

Vienna, 1090, Austria. Tel.: þ43 1 4277 76668; fax: þ43 1 4277 876661.

Contents lists availab

Soil Biology & journal homepage: www.els

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 83 (2015) 106e115E-mail address: joerg.schnecker@univie.ac.at (J. Schnecker).Boreal forests


Permafrost seven ecosystems along a 1500 km latitudinal transect in Western Siberia. We fo enzyme activities decreased rapidly with depth, whereas oxidative enzyme activities were as high as, or higher than in organic topsoil horizons. Enzyme patterns varie tween ecosystems in mineral subsoil horizons than in organic topsoils. The enzym horizons were correlated with SOM content (i.e., C and N content) and microbial c tion. In contrast, the enzyme patterns in mineral subsoil horizons were related to w and microbial community composition. The lack of correlation between enzyme quantity in the mineral subsoils suggests that SOM chemistry, spatial separation or p of SOM rather than SOM content might determine substrate availability for enzym correlation of microbial community composition and enzyme patterns in all hor microbial community composition shapes enzyme patterns and might act as a m dependency of decomposition rates on SOM content or C/N ratios. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article und (http://creativecommons.oPLFA

Tundra acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase), which had been measured in soil samples from organic topsoil horizons, mineral topsoil horizons, and mineral subsoil horizons fromAarhus University, Center for Geomicrobiolog f University of Bergen, Centre for Geobiology, B g Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian B a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 29 September 2014

Received in revised form 10 January 2015

Accepted 16 January 2015

Available online 7 February 2015


Extracellular enzymeshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.01.016 0038-0717/© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevieg a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia a, b, Mounir Takriti a, b, Ricardo J. Eloy Alves b, c, , f, Angelika Hofer a, Karoline Klaus a, Anna Knoltsch a, b, ikutta d, Andreas Richter a, b

Ecosystem Science, Division of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, Vienna, Austria

Systems Biology, Division of Archaea Biology and Ecogenomics, Vienna, Austria , Hannover, Germany ment of Bioscience, Aarhus, Denmark orway

Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia a b s t r a c t

Soil horizons below 30 cm depth contain about 60% of the organic carbon stored in soils. Although insight into the physical and chemical stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and into microbial community composition in these horizons is being gained, information on microbial functions of subsoil microbial communities and on associated microbially-mediated processes remains sparse. To identify possible controls on enzyme patterns, we correlated enzyme patterns with biotic and abiotic soil parameters, as well as with microbial community composition, estimated using phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Enzyme patterns (i.e. distance-matrixes calculated from these enzyme activities) were calculated from the activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-Microbial communityr Ltd. This is an open access articlele at ScienceDirect

Biochemistry evier .com/locate/soi lbiounder the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). are provided in Table 1 and Table S1. Climate data are derived from was removed from these samples by acidification with HCl before & Bihorizons differ from well studied topsoil horizons in a number of physical and chemical conditions that might influence enzyme activities and decomposition in general (Rumpel and K€ogelKnabner, 2011): Temperature decreases from topsoils to subsoils whereas soil moisture increases with depth, either improving conditions for decomposition in arid systems (Rovira and Vallejo, 2002), or impairing them in systems where water logging occurs and O2 availability is low (Kleber, 2010; Davidson et al., 2012). Soil pH, one of the factors often associated with enzyme activities (Sinsabaugh et al., 2008), also changes with depth (Eilers et al., 2012). In addition to these direct influences on enzyme activities, the availability of substrate for enzymatic breakdown decreases with depth. First, SOM is less abundant in subsoils, which leads to a high probability of a spatial disconnection of enzyme and substrate (Holden and Fierer, 2005). Second, a high proportion of SOM in subsoils is bound to minerals, stabilized by metal ions, or occluded in aggregates and therefore access for microorganism is limited (von Lützow et al., 2006). In addition to physical hurdles for decomposition, SOM in subsoils is chemically different from topsoil