Life happens and people matter: Critical events, constituent attachment, and turnover among part-time hospitality employeesby Michael J. Tews, Kathryn Stafford, John W. Michel

International Journal of Hospitality Management


Strategy and Management / Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


Electricity's Progress in the Iron and Steel Industry

Iron and Steel Production

Domestic labourer or scientist?

Woman And Science Collective

Balance damper

Griffin and Tatlock, Ltd.


Mary Noble and, Muriel Marshall


International Journal of Hospitality Management 38 (2014) 99–105

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International Journal of Hospitality Management jo u r n al homep age: www.elsev ier .com

Life happens and people matter: Critical events, c attachm sp

Michael a School of Hos ited S b Department o c Sellinger Scho ed Sta a r t i c l


Critical events

Constituent at

Turnover and

Hospitality em critic ly, th al ev estau loyee erall profe stitu nt at imp in the © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction

The imp industry is u mantra “Em level emplo they are lar level emplo needs of the

Unfortunat in particula hospitality pitality ind an on-going and Tracey excessive tu tivity losses of the hosp tive in ligh hospitality ∗ Correspon

E-mail add jwmichel@loy 1 Tel.: +1 61 2 Tel.: +1 41 of Labor, 2011). Moreover, the restaurant sector alone employs 0278-4319/$ – http://dx.doi.oortance of entry-level employees in the hospitality ndisputed. This point is central in the often-proclaimed ployees are our greatest asset.” Not only are entryyees central to the service delivery process, but also ge in number. Simply put, without high quality entryyees, hospitality enterprises cannot effectively meet the guest and survive in today’s competitive marketplace. ely, managing human resources, and employee turnover r, represents one of the most vexing problems faced by managers (Enz, 2001, 2009). Turnover rates in the hosustry are typically high, often exceeding 60%, creating cycle of recruitment, selection, and training (Hinkin , 2000; Tracey and Hinkin, 2008; Wildes, 2005). Such rnover strains organizations as costs escalate, producensue, and service quality is compromised. The extent itality industry’s turnover problem is put into perspect of how many individuals it employs. In the U.S., the industry is the fifth largest employer (U.S. Department ding author. Tel.: +1 814 863 7130. resses: (M.J. Tews), (K. Stafford), (J.W. Michel). 4 292 4564. 0 704 2693. approximately 12.9 million individuals, representing 10% of the U.S. civilian workforce (National Restaurant Association, 2012).

Wasmuth and Davis’s (1983) research, published thirty years ago, represents a classic study of the causes of turnover in the hospitality industry. With a sample of employees from twenty hotel properties throughout North America and Europe, the authors found that turnover is primarily the result of factors that impact employee job satisfaction. Specifically, they demonstrated that turnover was largely a function of dissatisfaction with supervision, working conditions, and pay. More recently, Hinkin and

Tracey (2000) argued that outdated human resource management practices continue to plague the hospitality industry and contribute to employee dissatisfaction and the perennial turnover challenge. They contended that employees often perform routine tasks, are given little autonomy in carrying out their work, receive poor supervision, and are typically compensated poorly for their efforts. The vast body of workplace turnover research further underscores the importance of overall job dissatisfaction and dissatisfaction with different aspects of the work environment in driving turnover (Griffeth et al., 2000). However, previous studies have only accounted for a modest percentage of variance in turnover behavior, and turnover scholars have emphasized the need for additional work that examines turnover in specific job and industry contexts (Holtom et al., 2008; Mitchell et al., 2001).

The current study will extend turnover research on entry-level employees in the hospitality industry by focusing on critical life see front matter © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. rg/10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.01.005ent, and turnover among part-time ho

J. Tewsa,∗, Kathryn Staffordb,1, John W. Michelc,2 pitality Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, Un f Consumer Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, United States ol of Business & Management, Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, Unit e i n f o tachment retention ployees a b s t r a c t

This research examined the impact of untary employee turnover. Specifical events on turnover – external person

With a sample of 290 servers from a r attachment were collected with emp wards from organizational records. Ov personal events and positive external positive internal work events and con ing retention. Furthermore, constitue turnover. These findings highlight the the employee turnover phenomenon / locate / i jhosman onstituent itality employees tates tes al life events and constituent attachment on entry-level volis research examined the influence of three types of critical ents, external professional events, and internal work events. rant chain in the U.S., data on critical events and constituent surveys, and turnover data were obtained six months after, the results demonstrated that positive and negative external ssional events were positively related to turnover. Meanwhile, ent attachment were negatively related to turnover, promottachment curbed the extent to which critical events lead to ortance of life events and constituents at work in explaining hospitality industry. 100 M.J. Tews et al. / International Journal of Hospitality Management 38 (2014) 99–105 events and constituent attachment. Notwithstanding the importance of job satisfaction, there is accumulating evidence that turnover may not always be a “slow burn” resulting from job dissatisfaction over time (Kammeyer-Mueller et al., 2005; Lee et al., 1996 that occur workplace, individuals drive turno employee tu may protec otherwise l in the hosp is particula individuals of turnover turnover.

The goa will examin impact emp fessional ev will assess turnover. Th ment reduc are explore employees,