Fractionation of whey proteins from red deer (Cervus elaphus) milk and comparison with whey proteins from cow, sheep and goat milksby Minh Ha, Alaa El-Din Bekhit, Michelle McConnell, Sue Mason, Alan Carne

Small Ruminant Research


Food Animals / Animal Science and Zoology


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L Gallego, J A Gomez, T Landete-Castillejos, A J Garcia, J A Estevez, F Ceacero, V Pineiro, X Casabiell, L F de la Cruz

Crosslinking of milk whey proteins by transglutaminase

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Interactions between milk whey protein and polysaccharide in solution

Adrián A. Perez, Carlos R. Carrara, Cecilio Carrera Sánchez, Juan M. Rodríguez Patino, Liliana G. Santiago

Manufacture of feta cheese from sheep's milk, goats' milk or mixtures of these milks

H. Mallatou, C.P. Pappas, L.P. Voutsinas


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Fractionation of whey proteins from red deer milk an fro and go

Minh Ha c,

Sue Maso a Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand b Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand c Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand d Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand a r t i c l

Article history:

Received 23 Fe

Received in re

Accepted 14 A

Available onlin


Milk proteins


Red deer

Fractionation 1. Introdu

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E-mail add http://dx.doi.o 0921-4488/© te this article in press as: Ha, M., et al., Fractionation of whey proteins from red deer (Cervus elak and comparison with whey proteins from cow, sheep and goat milks. Small Ruminant Res. (2014), e i n f o bruary 2014 vised form 12 April 2014 pril 2014 e xxx hy a b s t r a c t

In the present study, we report the first protein fractionation analysis of whey proteins from red deer (Cervus elaphus) milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the protein composition of red deer milk and examine the protein profile compared with that of cow, sheep and goat using 1D-PAGE and protein RP-HPLC of defatted milk. Ammonium sulfate fractionated sweet whey proteins of the four species were further subjected to anion exchange chromatography, and 1D- and large format 2D-PAGE analysis. Deer milk caseins displayed different mobility on 1D-PAGE, and chromatographed differently on RP-HPLC to those of other species. The apparent ratio of alpha-lactalbumin to beta-lactoglobulin in red deer milk was different compared to other species. As cheese wheys from other ruminants have been shown to contain proteins and peptides with health promoting benefits, it is of interest to characterize proteins in red deer whey, a by-product of an emerging novel deer cheese manufacture venture. Red deer sweet whey, as well as other species, could be fractionated to obtain a fraction partially depleted of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, which facilitated display of lower abundance proteins by 1D- and 2D-PAGE. Furthermore, a difference in casein coagulation during sweet whey production from milks of red deer and other species was observed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ction h milk production in the dairy industry in tries is dominated by cow milk, other farmed ch as sheep and goats are increasingly used roduction with products having interesting ding author at: Department of Biochemistry, University of 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel.: +64 3 479 7849. ress: (M. Ha). properties (Casper et al., 1999), including hypoallergenicity compared to cow (El-Agamy, 2007). Milk production from these small ruminants is well established and most of this milk is processed into specialist cheese or low allergenicity milk products. Red deer and also elk are farmed for meat production in New Zealand and more recently dairy herds of red deer and elk have been established, creating potential for developing a novel dairy industry, and trial productions of cheese from these milk sources have been reported (Ashton, 2013).

Cheese production results in the generation of significant rg/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.04.012 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.d comparison with whey proteins at milks a,∗, Alaa El-Din Bekhitb, Michelle McConnell nd, Alan Carnea (Cervus elaphus) m cow, sheep

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ARTICLE IN PRESSG ModelRUMIN-4723; No. of Pages 10 2 M. Ha et al. / Small Ruminant Research xxx (2014) xxx–xxx quantities of whey as a by-product, which is often underutilized in the dairy industry. Whey from non-bovine milk is usually disposed by land spreading (Casper et al., 1999).

Whey p cant nutriti utilized in

Ledesma e increasingly of bioactive investigatio hydrolysate that of cow digestible a et al., 2012 deer milk h immunomo 2012).

To our k report on r available at dant whey and Stewar reported to ferences in reported to (Martin et a is very limi tionation o species is av for laborato readily scal by FPLC us and Mono S et al., 1985 acid/aceton of this.

To comp ruminants ted whole goat by RPther insight proteins, pr -Lg and a deer, cow, to ammon exchange c procedures analyzed b tionation o for enrichm tein compo in this repo from the w visualizatio exchange c ful to achiev to use a HiT and scalabl strate differ species. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Materials

All chemicals were obtained from Sigma Aldrich New Zealand Ltd., nd, New aterials

GE elec ials wer n standa nd, New ilk sam pasteur (n = 6), J = 6) at ed from heep an source amples o remo pended s experi reparati eparatio ris et al. at 37 ◦C , New Z 00 × g f

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D-SDS P hey pro ini-gel d). Aliqu ffer (4× plier’s r -12% bi (Life Tec tion. Af and then ealand)

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TCEP, 50 ydration uffer w care, A ng in a he first ted to r tion for e forma an ETTA ealand) min, be d of Can eversedversedd accor system njector, te this article in press as: Ha, M., et al., Fractionatio lk and comparison with whey proteins from cow, she roteins have been recognized to have signifional and health-promoting value and have been various products (see review by Hernandezt al., 2011). Whey protein hydrolysates are being recognized as an important source peptides (Pihlanto-Leppala, 2000). A recent n of the in vitro production of peptide s from red deer whole milk in comparison with milk demonstrated that red deer milk was more nd produced more peptides (Opatha-Vithana ). Subsequently it has been shown that red ydrolysates generated peptides with significant dulatory bioactive properties (Opatha-Vithana, nowledge there has been only one previous ed deer, which was limited by the technology the time and focused mainly on the most abunprotein beta-lactoglobulin (-Lg) (McDougall t, 1976). While milk protein composition is vary for several different species and difphysical characteristics of the proteins are be due to differences in amino acid sequence l., 2003), literature on red deer whey proteins ted. Although a substantial literature on fracf milk proteins from mainly cow but also other ailable, many of the methods are more suitable ry analytical purposes and are not necessarily able for industry. The analysis of milk proteins ing ion exchange chromatography on Mono Q columns and using urea in the buffer (Andrews ), or the use of RP-HPLC using trifluoroacetic itrile buffers (Bordin et al., 2001) are examples are red deer milk proteins with those of other we initially performed a fractionation of defatmilk proteins from red deer, cow, sheep and