Factors related to the rate of orthodontically induced tooth movementby Alexander Dudic, Catherine Giannopoulou, Stavros Kiliaridis

American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics




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Factors related to the rate orthodontically induced to

Alexander Dudic,a Catherine Giannopoulou,b and Stavros

Geneva, Switzerland estig etwe he a ment e. F

Plas eval trol sex) senc he occlusion) were examined with analysis of variance.

O com amo outc in t sequ even nately “an of rch nd ent .7,8 lied

ORIGINAL ARTICLEClinically, differences in the rate of even in the same patient can be obs cases, the role of neighboring touching interferences by antagonist teeth seem amount of the tooth displacement. H ucts or companies described in this article.

Supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant 3200-127539).

Reprint requests to: Catherine Giannopoulou, Department of Periodontology,

Dental School, University of Geneva, Rue Barthelemy-Menn 19, 1205 Geneva,

Switzerland; e-mail, ekaterini.giannopoulou@unige.ch.

Submitted, July 2012; revised and accepted, December 2012.been shown to influence the rate of tooth movement.9,10

Professor, Department of Orthodontics.

The authors report no commercial, proprietary, or financial interest in the prod-to induce orthodontic tooth movement, and the rate is based mainly on patient characteristics. Several factors, such as age, drug consumption, diet, several systemic conditions, and other intrinsic genetic factors, have tooth movement erved. In certain teeth or occlusal to influence the owever, no study has investigated the role of such interferences on the

From the University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. aAssistant professor, Department of Orthodontics. bAssistant professor, Department of Periodontology. c 0889-5406/$36.00

Copyright  2013 by the American Association of Orthodontists. http:/ 616premolars and 1 control premolar. The displacement of the orthodontically moved teeth was 2.42 mm (range, 0.3-5.8 mm). Younger subjects (\16 years; n 5 19; number of teeth, 36) had significantly greater amounts of tooth displacement compared with older subjects ($16 years; n 5 11; number of teeth, 21): 2.6 6 1.3 mm vs 1.8 6 0.8 mm; P \0.01. When an interarch or intra-arch obstacle was present, the amount of tooth movement was significantly less (2.6 6 1.3 mm vs 1.8 6 0.8 mm) (P\0.05). Neither sex nor the location of the experimental teeth in the mandible or the maxilla had any effect. Conclusions: Younger patients showed greater tooth movement velocity than did older ones. An interarch or intra-arch obstacle decreased the amount of tooth displacement. (Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2013;143:616-21) rthodontic tooth movement has been defined as “the result of a biologic response to interference in the physiologic equilibrium of the dentofacial plex by an externally applied force.”1 Only small unts of force might be required to effect this ome, which is accompanied by remodeling changes he periodontal ligament and alveolar bone.2-5 The ence of cellular, molecular, and tissue-reaction ts during orthodontic tooth movement has been extensively studied.6 Several factors, alone or in combi tion, might influence remodeling activities and ultima tooth displacement. Among these, the concept of optimal orthodontic force” has been the subject investigation for several years. However, animal resea has shown that even with standardized, constant, a equal forces, the rate of orthodontic tooth movem can vary substantially among and even within subjects

Itwas concluded that awide range of forces canbe appMultiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine correlations between tooth displacement, age, sex, tooth location, and presence of an interference. Results: Each subject contributed at least 2 experimentalIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to inv movement in the maxillary and mandibular arches b presence of an interference that might influence t a standardized experimental orthodontic tooth move during 8 weeks with the application of a 1-N forc orthodontic tooth movement served as the controls. tooth movement were digitized and superimposed to tooth movement between the experimental and con experimental teeth, subject-related factors (age and mandibular dental arch, and the presence or ab neighboring touching teeth or teeth interfering with t/dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.12.009of oth movement

Kiliaridisc ate the variations of orthodontically induced tooth en patients and the factors such as age, sex, and mount of tooth displacement. Methods: By using in 30 subjects, 57 premolars were moved buccally orty-four contralateral premolars not subjected to ter models from before and after the experimental uate the amounts of tooth movement. Differences in groups were tested by an unpaired t test. For the and tooth-related factors (location in the maxillary or e of an intra-arch or interarch obstacle such asrate of tooth displacement. mental and control groups were tested by an unpaired t test. For the experimental teeth, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the influence of the factors of age, sex, tooth location, and intra-arch or interarch obstacle on the amount of tooth displacement. The mean age of the patients was 17.7 years, and the median was 15.1 years. We used the cutoff of 16 years to have a reasonable distribution between the “young” and “old” groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine correlations between tooth displacement, age, sex, tooth location, and the presence of an interference. The statistical analysis was processed with IBM SPSS software (release 19.0.0; IBM SPSS,

Chicago, Ill).

To evaluate the error of our method, we repeated the

Dudic, Giannopoulou, and Kiliaridis 617Owman-Moll et al11 and Owman-Moll12 introduced an experimental clinical model mainly to evaluate root resorption in previously moved and finally extracted premolars. Using the same model, our aims were (1) to study the variations of orthodontically induced tooth movement between subjects; (2) to identify factors such as age, sex, and location of the tooth in the mandible or the maxilla that could influence the amount of tooth displacement; and (3) to elucidate the importance of intra-arch (neighboring touching teeth) or interarch (occlusion-interfering antagonist) obstacles in the interference with the amount of tooth displacement.