Exploring cognitive restructuring: A multi-foci leadership perspectiveby Shannon Kerwin, Trevor Bopp

Sport Management Review

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1. Introduction

When shifting team culture in sport clubs, the importance of role modeling and training has been acknowledged (Schroeder, 2010a). Moreover, Schroeder (2010a) acknowledged the level of role modeling and training in sport far exceeds similar behaviors outlined in the corporate literature (cf., Kotter & Heskett, 1992; Muratbekova-Touron, 2005; Wren &

Dulewicz, 2005). Specifically in the sport context, coaches and managers are able to use a number of visible examples of desired values to help their followers (i.e., athletes, employees) understand the intangible elements of their new culture (Frontiera, 2010; Schroeder, 2010a, 2010b). In the sport domain, it is common place to use posters, messages, and visual aids t are useful in the ave a say in team l, 2001; Murray & nd rolemodel the cturing and more eral reasons. First,

Sport Management Review xxx (2013) xxx–xxx

Team culture

Shared leadership

Case study team culture. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with players and coaches (N = 31) who represented both leaders and followers from a shared leadership perspective.

The findings contribute to sport management theory by defining the complexity of cognitive restructuring and establishing the necessity of shared leadership (i.e., leaders and followers) during this stage of the change process.  2013 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand. Published by

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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SMR-248; No. of Pages 15

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Sport Management Review journa l homepage: www.e lsev ier .com/ locate /smrgiven the relatively high turnover of personnel among coaching staffs (Scott, 1997), the need to create knowledge and buy-in surrounding newor shifting culture becomes complex. For followers to embrace and be part of the change, it seems theymayin the locker/board room to consistently push group goals and objectives. These have become artifacts tha cultural shaping process. Coaches also have access to shared leadership environments where athletes h values and are forced to learn cultural values, thus creating buy-in for those values (Chelladurai & Trai

Mann, 2001). As such, giving teammembers a stake in the new culturemakes themmore apt to believe in a new assumptions. However, scant knowledge exists regarding the role of followers in cognitive restru specifically the process of learning through trial-and-error.

The role of both leaders and followers in the change processmay be particularly relevant in sport for sevExploring cognitive restructuring: A multi-foci leadership perspective

Shannon Kerwin *, Trevor Bopp

University of Florida, Florida Gym, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

A R T I C L E I N F O

Article history:

Received 3 January 2013

Received in revised form 5 September 2013

Accepted 18 November 2013

Keywords:

A B S T R A C T

Athletics teams operate in contexts where team culture fluctuates with constant change (i.e., player turnover). In such dynamic sport environments, a strong leadership core needs to be in place to effectively navigate changes in team culture. The purpose of this studywas to use the multi-foci perspective of leadership to explore the values and shared leadership qualities associated with proactively managing cognitive restructuring. A case study approach was used to examine a female sport team that recently encountered a shift inneed to be an active component of the change process. Second, the dynamic relationship betweenmultiple stakeholders in a * Corresponding author. Current address: Brock University, Department of SportManagement, 500 Glenridge Avenue, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2S 3A1. Tel.: +1 905 688 5550x6177; fax: +1 905 688 4505.

E-mail addresses: skerwin@brocku.ca (S. Kerwin), tbopp@hhp.ufl.edu (T. Bopp).

Please cite this article in press as: Kerwin, S., Bopp, T., Exploring cognitive restructuring: A multi-foci leadership perspective. Sport Management Review (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2013.11.005 1441-3523/$ – see front matter  2013 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2013.11.005

S. Kerwin, T. Bopp / Sport Management Review xxx (2013) xxx–xxx2

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SMR-248; No. of Pages 15focus and serve each research question regarding cultural change, shared leadership (leaders, followers, and context) will be defined and the potential influence of shared leadership on cognitive restructuring of team culture acknowledged. Further to this, the concepts of cognitive restructuring, values, and assumptions will be discussed.

Hernandez et al. (2011) suggested that certain contexts are privy to the development of shared leadership (cf., Yukl, 2006). Shared leadership may be particularly relevant when examining cognitive restructuring of sport team culture, as sport teams are defined by collective goal setting, peer-evaluation, and common objectives (Lussier & Kimball, 2009). Thus, each member of a team should theoretically be actively involved in establishing the culture of their team. More specifically, the ‘‘collective’’ focus that is prevalent within sport teams is intuitively connected to the concepts of integrated, leadershipcentered team culture (Schein, 2004), which indirectly provides the foundation for shared leadership development. 2.1. Shared leadership

As noted by Hernandez et al. (2011), major contributions to leadership theory must consider multiple leader foci (leader, follower, and context), and more specifically, the attitudes and behaviors of various stakeholders within the leadership process. This may be especially relevant in assessing the culture of sport teams that are in a constant state of change (i.e., turnover of athletes) and rely on shared values associated with winning, high-level performance, and (increasingly) high ethical standards.

Pearce and Conger (2003) define the shared leadership process as ‘‘a dynamic, interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational goals or both’’ (p. 1). Further, shared leadership involves collective decisionmaking as well as initiating actions, taking responsibility for actions and collectively taking responsibility for outcomes (Hoch, 2007). Moreover, leadership is ‘‘conceived as a group quality, as a set of functions which must be carried out by the group’’ (Gibb, 1954, p. 884). This definition highlights the importance of the collective when exploring the facets of team functioning.