Experimental Installation for Studying Hydroaerothermal Characteristics of Sprinklers and Water Traps of Cooling Towersby S. P. Ivanov, I. G. Ibragimov, K. E. Bondar’, O. S. Ivanov

Chem Petrol Eng


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An experimental installation designed for engineering tests of sprinkling and water trapping devices is described. Aerodynamic tests were performed to determine the aerodynamic resistance coefficient of sprinklers and water traps and its dependence on the recirculating water and air flow rate.

Hydroaerothermal tests were performed to determine the relative circulating water temperature based on a host of physical parameters. The experimental installation developed permitted measurements of the key process parameters with fair accuracy.

Keywords: aerodynamics, water heating system, water cycle, water supply system, water distributing system, water collecting system, water trap, air offtake system, hydroaerothermal tests, cooling towers, sprinkler, irrigation density.

Sprinklers and water traps of industrial cooling towers are some of the basic components that determine the circulating water cooling efficiency. For optimum choice of sprinkler and water trap design, depending upon the stipulated technological requirements of a specific water circulating system, knowledge of their key characteristics, namely, aerodynamic resistance and hydroaerothermal parameters, is essential. These parameters cannot always be obtained by calculations because of complicated and often incorrect mathematical procedures [1].

In order to determine the technological and hydroaerothermal characteristics of cooling tower sprinkler and water trap designs and to assess the circulating water cooling process efficiency, an experimental installation was built (Fig. 1).

Aerodynamic tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic resistance coefficient of sprinklers and water traps as a function of circulating water flow rate (irrigation density) and air flow velocity [2, 3]. Hydroaerothermal tests were conducted to determine the relative circulating water temperature based on a set of physical parameters, including the characteristics of the water and air media passing through the installation. The circulating water irrigation density was q = 12 m3/(m2⋅h), the ascending air flow velocity, 0.5–3 m/sec, and the temperature of the water supplied to the installation, 40°C.

Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Vol. 51, Nos. 1–2, May, 2015 (Russian Original Nos. 1–2, Jan.–Feb., 2015)





S. P. Ivanov, I. G. Ibragimov,

K. E. Bondar’, and O. S. Ivanov





Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, Ufa, Russia; e-mail: kristina88_08@mail.ru. Translated from Khimicheskoe i Neftegazovoe

Mashinostroenie, No. 1, pp. 3–4, January, 2015. 0009-2355/15/0102-0003 ©2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York 3

DOI 10.1007/s10556-015-9987-1

Aerodynamic and hydroaerothermal tests of sprinklers were performed without regard for appropriate preparation of the experimental bench, equipment, and measuring instruments.

The experimental installation is a vertical column (total height 6 m, width 0.5 m, and length 0.5 m) where all the constituent components are placed for simulating countercurrent scheme of water cooling in the cooling tower. The side walls of the column are made of sheet polystyrene (branch standard OST 6-19-510–90) with foam plastic insulation (PSB – S-25).

For visual observation and monitoring of the water distribution (redistribution) process in the sprinkling device components (the water interacting with the ascending air flow), the face side of the column was made of Plexiglas (acrylic glass). A water distributing system with tangential nozzles of Dn 20×12 (technical specifications TU 2296-017-47539491–2000) was placed at the top section of the column and the components of the test sprinkling devices up to 1.5 m high, 0.5 m wide, and 0.5 m long (irrigation area 0.25 m2) were installed in the working section; the bottom section was for collection of the cooled water and entry of the air flow. The top and working sections are provided with technological hatches and portholes for assembling and preventive operations. The hatches and portholes were closed tightly during performance of tests. If necessary, an assembling-servicing platform was connected to the working section of the column. The transition from the rectangular part of the top section of the column to the air channel is a confuser, which is intended also for equalization of the air flow rate throughout the column cross section.

The water supply system consisted of a hot water tank, a circulating pump, heating devices, pressure pipes, valve fittings, a make-up water valve, and a cooled water tank. A Danfoss frequency converter (1 kW) was installed in the circulating pump to control the electric motor shaft rotation speed to 5000 rpm, which allowed variation of the flow of the water supplied to the test cooling tower sprinkler. MS 500 water flow sensors and thermocouples of the AMI-301 multifunctional device were installed in the system.

The pressure-type water distributing system was used for uniform distribution of water throughout the irrigation area by sprinkling it through a tangential nozzle. 4

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of experimental installation for investigating hydroaerothermal characteristics of cooling tower sprinklers: 1) blower; 2) pump; 3) heating devices; 4) hot water tank; 5) water distributing system; 6) test cooling tower sprinkler; 7) cooled water tank; 8) vertical column (installation housing); 9) flowmeter; 10.1–10.6) valves.

The water collecting system of the installation is meant for collection and measurement of temperature parameters of water (AMI-301 multifunctional thermocouples were used) cooled in the working section and transfer of the water to the tank for heating.

The water heating system, provided with three 4 kW automatic water heaters, allowed fixing and maintaining the required water heating level with ±1°C accuracy and automatic control of the heating process.