Enhancing the magnetic and antibacterial properties of ZnO nanopowders through Mn+Co dopingby K. Karthika, K. Ravichandran

Ceramics International

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Ceramics International ] ( te þ . R m C orm nth . X ract absence of any secondary phase. Antibacterial activities of synthesized ZnO nanopowders were tested against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria magnetic semiconductors (DMS) because of their potential studies, tuning of antibacterial and magnetic properties of ZnO enhance the carrier concentration to a greater extent. Ashokkumar et al. [15] and Jayakumar et al. [16] reported that the codoping of Co with Cr increased the carrier concentration nCorresponding author: Mobile: þ91 9443524180; Tel.: 91 04362 278602; fax: þ91 4374 239328.remarkably which in turn enhanced the ferromagnetism in the

ZnO nanoparticles. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.02.135 0272-8842/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.

E-mail addresses: kkr1365@yahoo.com, kkravi1365@gmail.com (K. Ravichandran).Please cite this

Ceramics Interapplications in spintronics as well as antibacterial studies [2,3].

The DMS's can be obtained by the partial substitution of cations of the nonmagnetic semiconductors by magnetic transition metal ions (TMs). Among these semiconductors, zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most favorable semiconductors for producing DMS due to its desirable properties [4].

Especially, nanostrctured ZnO materials are good candidates for use in functional devices, antibacterial treatment, photocatalyst, targeted drug delivery agents, anticorrosion coatings nanopowders was achieved by the substitution of Mn with the doping concentration up to 10 at% without any secondary phases [14]. However, higher doping levels may lead to the formation of metallic cluster and/or secondary phases which cause a decrease in the carrier concentration of the materials.

Simultaneous doping is one of the best approaches to enhance the carrier concentration without the formation of any secondary phases. Therefore, in the present study the Mn doping level is limited to 10 at% and a co dopant Co is added in order tothe Co doping level was 5 at%. The obtained PL, SEM and TEM results are corroborated well with the antibacterial activity. Magnetic measurements showed that undoped ZnO sample exhibits diamagnetic behavior and as the Co doping level increases, the nanopowder behaves as a ferromagnetic material. & 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.

Keywords: A. Powders: Chemical preparation; C. Magnetic properties; D. ZnO; E. Biomedical application 1. Introduction

In the last few decades, semiconductor nanomaterials have attracted much interest due to their unique properties [1].

Recently, considerable attention has been paid on diluted and spintronic devices because of their low toxicity, biocompatibility, bio-safety and high electron mobility [5–11].

Of these, Mn and Co are potential transition metal ions suitable for the incorporation into the ZnO lattice due to their high solubility with respect to ZnO [12,13]. In our previoususing agar well diffusion method. It was found that the antibacterial efficiency of the doubly doped ZnO nanopowders was remarkably high whenEnhancing the magnetic and antibac through Mn

K. Karthika, K

Post Graduate and Research Department of Physics, AVVM Sri Pushpa

Received 9 February 2015; received in revised f

Abstract

Undoped and doubly (MnþCo) doped ZnO nanopowders were sy constant Mn doping level (10 at%) using a simple soft chemical route

ZnO with hexagonal wurtzite structure. No peaks other than the chaarticle as: K. Karthika, K. Ravichandran, Enhancing the magnetic national (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.02.135INTERNATIONAL ]]]]) ]]]–]]] rial properties of ZnO nanopowders

Co doping avichandrann ollege (Autonomous), Poondi, Thanjavur 613 503, Tamil Nadu, India 18 February 2015; accepted 24 February 2015 esized with different doping levels of Co (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 at%) and

RD profiles confirmed that the synthesized material is nanocrystalline eristic ZnO peaks were observed in the XRD pattern confirming the www.elsevier.com/locate/ceramintand antibacterial properties of ZnO nanopowders through MnþCo doping,

Various physical and chemical synthesis methods have been used to obtain undoped and doped ZnO nanoparticles, such as combustion [17], sol–gel [18], electrochemical [19], co-precipitation [20] and soft chemical [21]. Among these methods, the soft chemical route is the most widely used, because of its several advantages which include, low hazardousness, simplicity, inexpensiveness, low processing temperature and ease of doping. Hence, in the present study, we have prepared undoped and doubly (MnþCo) doped ZnO nanopowders using the simple soft chemical method with constant Mn (10 at%) and different Co doping levels (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 at%).

Eventhough, some reports are available in the literature on the

MnþCo doped ZnO nanoparticles [22–25], the study of the combined magnetic and antibacterial properties of MnþCo doped ZnO is not reported so far. Therefore, in this work an attempt is made to investigate the magnetic as well as antimicrobial properties of this material and correlate these antibacterial activity was found as 8 in our previous study [11]. value was maintained 47. Keeping this in mind, the pH value was maintained at 8 in the present work by adding suitable amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with the starting solution.

The prepared mixture was stirred magnetically for 2 h at a temperature of 85 1C to get a homogeneous solution. After the stirring process it was allowed to cool to room temperature and kept undisturbed for 1 h to get the required precipitate. Then, it was rinsed and filtered separately with deionized water and ethanol in the ratio of 3:1 several times to remove the contaminations and dried in air. Finally, it was calcined at 550 1C for 3 h in a muffle furnace to obtain the final product.

The structural properties of synthesized nanopowders was obtained using X-ray diffractometer (PANalytical-PW 340/60 X’ pert PRO) with Cu-Kα radiation (λ¼1.5406 Å). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were recorded using Perkin-Elmer RX-I