Effect of bioethanol conversion efficiency and ratio of rice paddy area to flatland on energy consumption and CO2 emission of rice straw transport process in Japanby Takahiro Orikiasa, Poritosh Roy, Ken Tokuyasu, Nobutaka Nakamura, Shoji Koide, Takeo Shiina

Biosystems Engineering


Agronomy and Crop Science / Animal Science and Zoology / Food Science / Soil Science / Control and Systems Engineering


LXVIII. The Abbot and Convent of Woburn to the King

Thabbot and convent of Woburn

Regulatory approaches to the control of environmental mutagens and carcinogens

Members and Consultant of Committee

Occupational safety and health standards adopted for fourteen carcinogens

U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Admi

Effect of rice straw application on CH 4 emission from paddy fields

Akira Watanabe, Kayo Katoh, Makoto Kimura


ol to

CO in ritos hoji ity, 3-1 uelph, tional A a Univ a r t i c l e i n f o

Keywords: bioethanol production rgy consumption and , we investigated the e rice paddy area to e straw transport pro0; g: 0.050e0.20) were tively. The predicting rice straw transport process was constructed, and the energy consumption and the CO2 emissions were proer and g raised to the nergy consumption of tion of the rice straw gher value of average td. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction

Researchers have been interested in producing ethanol fuel made from biomass (bioethanol) as an alternative to fossil fuel for transport because bioethanol has an advantage in its carbon-neutral nature as a fuel (Cardona & Sanchez, 2008;

Ragauskas et al., 2006; Sanchez & Cardona, 2008). The global production of bioethanol raised from 17,106 ML in 2000 to * Corresponding author. Tel./fax: þ81 19 621 6179.

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect vi b i o s y s t em s e n g i n e e r i n g 1 3 3 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 9 5e1 0 1E-mail address: orikasa@iwate-u.ac.jp (T. Orikiasa).Rice straw

Biomass transport

Ethanol conversion efficiency

Ratio of the rice paddy area to flatland

Energy consumption

CO2 emission portional to the ethanol conversion efficiency raised to the 1.5 pow 0.5 power. These results showed that the lower g, the higher the e the rice straw transport process. Furthermore, the energy consump transport process increased at large-scale plants because of the hi transportation distance. © 2015 IAgrE. Published by Elsevier LArticle history:

Received 28 March 2013

Received in revised form 4 March 2015

Accepted 6 March 2015

Published online 31 March 2015

In Japan, rice straw is recognised as the most promising biomass for based on the amount and availability. This study examined the ene the CO2 emissions of the rice straw transport process. Specifically effects of the ethanol conversion efficiency (ε) and the ratio of th flatland (g) on the CO2 emission and energy consumption of the ric cess. The energy consumption and the CO2 emissions (ε: 0.60e1. determined to be 0.17e0.37 MJ L1 and 0.012e0.025 kg L1, respec model for the energy consumption and the CO2 emissions of theEffect of bioethan of rice paddy area consumption and transport process

Takahiro Orikiasa a,*, Po

Nobutaka Nakamura c, S a Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate Univers b School of Engineering, University of G c National Food Research Institute, Na

Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan d Graduate School of Horticulture, Chibhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.20 1537-5110/© 2015 IAgrE. Published by Elsevieconversion efficiency and ratio flatland on energy 2 emission of rice straw

Japan h Roy b, Ken Tokuyasu c,

Koide a, Takeo Shiina c,d 8-8 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan

Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada griculture and Food Research Organization, 2-1-12 Kannondai, ersity, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510, JapanResearch Paperjournal homepage: www.else15.03.002 r Ltd. All rights reserveder.com/ locate/ issn/15375110. b i o s y s t em s e n g i n e e r i n g 1 3 3 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 9 5e1 0 19672,782 ML in 2009 (F. O. Licht, 2009). Bioethanol is commercially produced from edible feedstocks, such as cornstarch and sugarcane juices, and these bioethanol production systems pose a concern because of competition with food and feed supplies (Park, Arakane, Shiroma, Ike, & Tokuyasu, 2010).

To avoid this competition, non-edible lignocellulosic sources of biomass, such as rice or wheat straw, woody biomass, and lignocellulosic energy crops, are expected to be the new second generation bioethanol resource (Galbe & Zacchi, 2007;

Goh, Tan, Lee, & Bhatia, 2010; Merino & Cherry, 2007).

In Japan, rice straw has attracted interest as a potential source for bioethanol production (Ogino & Kondo, 2009;

Matsumura, Minowa, & Yamamoto, 2005; Ueda, 2011). Asano and Minowa (2007), and Imou (2008) reported that 6.7 Mt of wet rice straw (water content is about 15% wet basis) could potentially be converted to 1.7 GL of bioethanol every year in

Japan. Bioethanol made from rice straw, however, has not been commercially produced in Japan because studies concerning the rice straw bioethanol production process are scarce. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as rice straw and other agricultural wastes, is not densely concentrated in the agricultural field. Therefore, the transport process of the agricultural wastes tends to have high financial and energy costs.

Thus, the necessity for evaluating the efficiency of the rice straw transport process has increased. The energy consumption and the CO2 emissions of the rice straw transport process influence not only the total levels of energy consumption and the CO2 emission but also the total cost of bioethanol production. The report of the energy consumption and the CO2 emissions of the rice straw transport process, however, are fewer than that of the bioethanol production process (e.g.,

Park, Shiroma et al., 2010; Shiroma et al., 2011). For example,

Saga et al. (2008) reported that 16.6% of selling price of a baled rice straw was the transport cost. Kanai, Takekura, Kato, and

Kobayashi (2010) reported that the fuel consumption of biomass transport process occupied to 1.3% of the caloric value of produced bioethanol. In estimation of energy consumption, CO2 emission, and total cost of bioethanol production process, the transport distance and plant capacity differences are major uncertain factors to determine an optimal condition.

In this study, therefore, we focused on the effects of the feedstock transport process on ethanol production in relation to the conversion efficiency and the ratio of the rice paddy area to flatland (flatland is defined as the amount of area of farm land, grass land, roads, land for building and others), which influences the transport distance and quantity of rice straw required. This study had three objectives: 1. To investigate the effects of the ethanol conversion efficiency and the ratio of the rice paddy area to flatland on the energy consumption and the CO2 emissions of the rice straw transport process in Japan. 2. To establish a model to predict the energy consumption and the CO2 emissions of the rice straw transport process. 3. To discuss the relationship between the bioethanol plant size and the energy consumption of the rice straw trans-port process.2. Materials and methods 2.1. Major parameters for analysis