Effect of alcohol–gasoline blends optimization on fuel properties, performance and emissions of a SI engineby B.M. Masum, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam, S.M. Palash, M. Habibullah

Journal of Cleaner Production

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Text

Accepted Manuscript

Effect of alcohol-gasoline blends optimization on fuel properties and their effect on SI engine performance and emission

Md Masum Billah, Masjuki Haji Hassan, Md Abul Kalam, Md Palash Sarker, Md.

Habibullah

PII: S0959-6526(14)00854-3

DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.032

Reference: JCLP 4609

To appear in: Journal of Cleaner Production

Received Date: 21 May 2014

Revised Date: 7 July 2014

Accepted Date: 3 August 2014

Please cite this article as: Billah MM, Hassan MH, Kalam MA, Palash Sarker M, Habibullah M, Effect of alcohol-gasoline blends optimization on fuel properties and their effect on SI engine performance and emission, Journal of Cleaner Production (2014), doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.032.

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Abstract

This study, as an observation, put its utmost effort to emphasize on the development of various physicochemical properties using multiple alcohols (C2 to C6) at different ratios compared to that of the conventional ethanol-gasoline blend. To optimize the properties of multiple alcohol-gasoline blends, properties of each fuel were measured first. An optimization tool of Microsoft Excel “Solver” was used for obtaining the optimum blend.

Using optimizing tool, three optimum blend ratios were selected which possessed maximum heating value (MaxH), maximum research octane number (MaxR) and maximum petroleum displacement (MaxD). These blends were used for testing in a four cylinder gasoline engine at the wide open throttle condition with varying speeds and compared obtained outcomes with that of E15 (15% ethanol and 85% gasoline) as well as gasoline. Optimized blends have shown higher brake torque and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) but lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than E15. MaxR, MaxD and MaxH blends produced mean 4.4%, 1.8% and 0.4% increased BTE and mean 4.39%, 1.8% and 2.27% lower BSFC than that of E15. On the other hand, MaxR, MaxD, MaxH and E15 reduced 4.46%, 8.37%, 12.4% and 17.2%, mean CO emission and 4.5%, 11.81%, 8.19% and 16% mean HC emission respectively than that of gasoline. NOx emission of optimized blends was higher than gasoline. However,

MaxR, MaxD, MaxH reduced 4%, 14.57% and 20.76% NOx than that of E15.

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Effect of alcohol-gasoline blends optimization on fuel properties and their 1 effect on SI engine performance and emission 2

Md Masum Billah1,∗, Masjuki Haji Hassan2 and Md Abul Kalam3,*, Md Palash Sarker4 3 and Md. Habibullah5 4 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 5

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 6

Abstract 7

Alcohols are potential renewable alternatives to gasoline because of their bio-based origin. In 8 spite of having experiment of fruitful application of ethanol in many parts of the world, 9 alcohols with higher carbon number (C3 to C6) also have the potential to apply as substitutes 10 as well. They possess higher energy content, octane number and can displace more petroleum 11 gasoline than that of ethanol. Therefore, this study, as an observation, put its utmost effort to 12 emphasize on the development of various physicochemical properties using multiple alcohols 13 (C2 to C6) at different ratios compared to that of the ethanol gasoline blend (E10/E15). To 14 optimize the properties of multiple alcohol-gasoline blends, properties of each fuel were 15 measured. An optimization tool of Microsoft Excel “Solver” was used for obtaining the 16 optimum blend. Three optimum blends with maximum heating value (MaxH), maximum 17 research octane number (MaxR) and maximum petroleum displacement (MaxD) are selected 18 for testing in a four cylinder gasoline engine. Tests were executed under the wide open 19 throttle condition with varying speeds and compared obtained outcomes with that of E15 as 20 well as gasoline. Optimized blends have shown higher brake torque and brake thermal 21 efficiency (BTE) but lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than E15. MaxR, MaxD 22 and MaxH blends produced mean 4.4%, 1.8% and 0.4% increased BTE and mean 4.39%, 23 * Corresponding author. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur,

Malaysia. Tel.: +603 79674448; fax: +603 79675317; E-mail: masum05me@gmail.com

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 2 1.8% and 2.27% lower BSFC than that of E15. On the other hand, MaxR, MaxD, MaxH and 24

E15 reduced 4.46%, 8.37%, 12.4% and 17.2%, mean CO emission and 4.5%, 11.81%, 8.19% 25 and 16% mean HC emission respectively than that of gasoline. NOx emission of optimized 26 blends was higher than gasoline. However, MaxR, MaxD, MaxH reduced 4%, 14.57% and 27 20.76% NOx than that of E15. Thus, optimized multi alcohol-gasoline blends were obtained 28 to be a better alternative in terms of fuel properties, engine performance and emission for an 29 unmodified gasoline engine. 30

Key words: Ethanol; Alcohol; Optimization; Performance; Emission; Gasoline engine. 31

Nomenclature

EPA Environmental protection Agency BSFC Brake Specific Fuel Consumption

RON Research Octane Number BTE Brake Thermal Efficiency

RVP Raid vapor Pressure EGTs Exhaust Gas Temperatures

HoV Heat of Vaporization SI Spark Ignition

LHV Lower Heating Value CO Carbon monoxide

C2 Ethanol HC Hydrocarbon

C3 Propanol NOx Nitrogen oxides

C4 Butanol E15 15%Ethanol + 85% Gasoline

C5 Pentanol E10 10%Ethanol + 90% Gasoline

C6 Hexanol MaxR Blend of Maximum Research

Octane Number

MaxH Blend of Maximum Research

Heating value