Development of a model to calculate asbestos fiber from damaged asbestos slates depending on the degree of damageby Young-Chan Kim, Won-Hwa Hong, Yuan-Long Zhang

Journal of Cleaner Production

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Article history:

Accepted 28 August 2014

Available online 6 September 2014

Keywords:

Asbestos

Damaged asbestos cement slate affordability and desirable physical properties such as resistance to (Doll et al., 1985; Hourihane, 1964; Linton A. et al., 2012). Harmfulness of asbestos has long been a subject of research (Wagner, 1965; Kamp, D.W., 2009). Due to this asbestos use has been reduced gradually since the 1970s and some countries have been establishing related laws to prohibit or limit development of especially in the form of asbestos cement (Kazan-Allen, 2005; s generally occur l., 1996; Ernst, W., ul to health since cement (U.S. EPA, stos fibers are lost ars of weathering st countries but is increasing in Latin America, Russia and Asia (Kazan-Allen, 2005).

Unlike the increasing use of asbestos in Asia, Korea started to import asbestos in the 1960s, it recorded its peak use in 1992 by about 95 thousand tons but has shown a consistent decrease since then (Kim et al., 2009). After inserting asbestos in the list of harmful substances that require permission to be used with the revision of the Occupational Safety and Health Act in 1990, Korea banned the use of asbestos completely with the revision of an enforcement decree of the act in 2009 (Korea ME, 2009). In addition, Korea has * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ82 53 950 5597; fax: þ82 53 950 6590.

Contents lists availab

Journal of Clean els

Journal of Cleaner Production 86 (2015) 88e97E-mail addresses: hongwh@knu.ac.kr, hongwonhwa@gmail.com (W.-H. Hong).heat and fire as well as its antiseptic and insulating properties.With the utilization of steam engines since the Industrial Revolution, asbestos consumption increased rapidly (Becklake, 1976; Sim, M.R., 2013). Global consumption of asbestos started to increase rapidly in the 1940s and reached its peak in the 1980s (Virta, 2006). Exposure to asbestos, however, is known to cause incurable diseases after a latent period of 20e50 years such as pulmonary asbestosis, lung cancer with unfavorable prognosis and malignant mesothelioma

Jinhui et al., 2014). Asbestos-caused disease through inhalation of asbestos fiber (Kane et a 2012). Asbestos cement is not deemed harmf the asbestos fibers are strongly bound by the 2003). However, it caused problems when asbe and emitted to their surroundings through ye (Bornemann and Hildebrandt, 1986).

Use of asbestos is prohibited or limited in moAsbestos has been used since ancient times due to its high still used in large quantities in many countries as building materialAsbestos fiber

Degree of damage 1. Introductionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.092 0959-6526/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.searchers developed a model to estimate the amount of asbestos fiber generated depending on the damage of slates, focusing on natural damages. The researchers collected used slates from typical buildings and classified them into 3 grades depending on the severity of damage. The researchers freedropped slates from the roof height of a typical building, and sampled the air surrounding it. With the air sampled for each of the 3 grades of damage, the researchers counted the asbestos fibers by using the

Scanning Electron Microscopy/Phase Contrast Microscopy. By conducting a regression analysis with SPSS 20.0 based on data acquired, the researchers deduced a formula. The linear regression analysis showed that ‘damaged slate generates asbestos fiber per unit area ¼ 0.077 þ 0.159  area of slate (coefficient of determination: 70.1%)’. Generation of asbestos fiber per unit area was 0.127 f/cc (Good), 0.157 f/cc (Normal), and 0.221 f/cc (Bad). The estimation model offered in this study can quantify the amount of asbestos fiber based on the building area by estimating the amount of asbestos fiber scattered due to the slate's severity of damage. This estimation model is expected to contribute to the quantification of asbestos generated due to disasters, including earthquakes, by building and by area, which were not been possible before due to the lack of relevant studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. asbestos since the early 1990s (Kane et al., 1996; Nicholson, 2001;

Selikoff et al., 1964; Deng et al., 2009). Nevertheless, asbestos isReceived in revised form 28 August 2014Received 9 July 2014

It is very important to quantify asbestos fiber emitted due to disasters and formulate measures to prevent scattering as to maintain, dismantle and remove asbestos slates effectively in normal times. The re-Development of a model to calculate as asbestos slates depending on the degree

Young-Chan Kim, Won-Hwa Hong*, Yuan-Long Zha

School of Architecture, Civil, Environmental and Energy Engineering, Kyungpook Nation

Republic of Korea a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t journal homepage: www.stos fiber from damaged f damage niversity, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701, le at ScienceDirect er Production evier .com/locate/ jc lepro ow o anerestablished the Asbestos Injury Relief Act and the Asbestos Safety

Management Act to regulate compensation for damage caused by asbestos and to control the safety of used asbestos (Kim et al., 2014).

In Korea, about 96% of the imported asbestos in the 1970s was used in slates, a type of asbestos cement, and it was used about 82% of the time in the 1990s (J.K. Choi et al., 1998). In Korea, slates were manufactured in a mixture of about 90% cement and 10% chrysotile.

All the slates produced were asbestos cement slates (Kim et al., 2010). Calcium hydroxide, a component of cement, is waterFig. 1. Process fl

Y.-C. Kim et al. / Journal of Clesoluble (Beddoe and Dorner, 2005). As time passes, asbestos fibers contained in the slate are emitted into the surroundings (Bornemann and Hildebrandt, 1986) and solubility grows in acid rain (Dyczek, 2006). The high concentration of asbestos measured in the air around buildings with deteriorated slate roofs has a harmful influence on health (Spurny, 1989). About 80% of asbestos emitted from corroded surfaces is reported to be washed away by rain water with about 20% being emitted into the air, but the exact ratio has not been verified (Meyer, 1986). Recent research reported that moss can protect the surface of the slate as the metabolite of moss converts the chemical component of asbestos fibers into a harmless substance (Favero-Longo et al., 2009; Turci et al., 2007) however this is not an ultimate solution. Considering the global trend of banning asbestos, the situation in Korea, and the hazards of slates, the solution against asbestos-related problems in Korea should be effective maintenance, safe removal and safe disposal (Kim et al., 2011a,b).