Development and validation of an instrument for assessing job demands arising from accelerated change: The intensification of job demands scale (IDS)by Bettina Kubicek, Matea Paškvan, Christian Korunka

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology

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Year
2014
DOI
10.1080/1359432X.2014.979160
Subject
Applied Psychology / Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management

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Development and validation of an instrument for assessing job demands arising from accelerated change: The intensification of job demands scale (IDS)

Bettina Kubiceka, Matea Paškvana & Christian Korunkaa a Department of Applied Psychology: Work, Education and Economy, Faculty of Psychology,

University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Published online: 24 Nov 2014.

To cite this article: Bettina Kubicek, Matea Paškvan & Christian Korunka (2014): Development and validation of an instrument for assessing job demands arising from accelerated change: The intensification of job demands scale (IDS),

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/1359432X.2014.979160

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2014.979160

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Development and validation of an instrument for assessing job demands arising from accelerated change: The intensification of job demands scale (IDS)

Bettina Kubicek†, Matea Paškvan†, and Christian Korunka

Department of Applied Psychology: Work, Education and Economy, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna,

Vienna, Austria

Accelerated societal and organizational changes have placed new pressures on employees. Especially, service employees are exposed to intensified workloads, planning and decision-making, and learning demands. Despite the growing attention given to this intensification of job demands, a comprehensive measure is missing. In the present study, we developed the Intensification of Job Demands Scale (IDS) and validated it in four samples (N = 1363). Confirmatory factor analyses supported the differentiation into five subscales, namely work intensification, intensified job-related planning and decision-making demands, intensified career-related planning and decision-making demands, intensified knowledge-related learning demands, and intensified skill-related learning demands. This five-factor structure holds for both the German and the English versions of the instrument. Convergent and discriminant validity tests showed that the IDS subscales are moderately related to established measures of job demands, but at most have small correlations with negative affectivity. Providing support for the incremental validity, the IDS subscales were found to add to the prediction of burnout and job satisfaction beyond established job demands.

Finally, the IDS subscales helped to identify employees who experienced changes in their work situation. In sum, the results indicate that the IDS is a valid and reliable measure to assess the intensification of job demands.

Keywords: Social acceleration; Job demands; Changing working conditions; Intensification; Validation; Service industries.

The world of work has changed considerably over the past few decades. There are continuing shifts away from manufacturing towards services (postindustrialization;

Bell, 1973) and from previously closed national economies towards global ones (globalization; Giddens, 1990).

Moreover, organizational structures have become increasingly flexible and new management practices have been implemented (Cascio, 2003). Besides these qualitative changes, there is also a quantitative one: With all of these changes, the speed at which transformations occur has accelerated (Rosa, 2003).

The accelerated economic, societal, and organizational changes inevitably alter what is expected of employees. Employees have found themselves working under a new dictum putting increasing emphasis on speed (e.g., Cascio, 2003), planning and decision-making (Pongratz & Voß, 2003), and knowledge (Loon &

Casimir, 2008). For example, the percentage of employees working at high speed and under tight deadlines has increased since the 1990s (Green & McIntosh, 2001).

Moreover, employees are confronted with more job autonomy (Wood, 2011) and higher learning demands (Loon & Casimir, 2008), since innovation and knowledge are recognized as sources of competitive advantage.

Despite the growing attention given to the intensification of job demands (e.g., Korunka & Kubicek, 2013), a comprehensive measure for assessing the extent to which employees experience such intensification is still missing. Although, there is a long tradition of assessing change with the use of longitudinal data, this approach may, despite its well-known advantages, have downsides, especially when it comes to the assessment of long-term transformations. Response shift (Schwartz &