Controlled preparation of carbon nanotube-conducting polymer composites at the polarisable organic/water interfaceby P.S. Toth, A.K. Rabiu, R.A.W. Dryfe

Electrochemistry Communications

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Year
2015
DOI
10.1016/j.elecom.2015.08.022
Subject
Electrochemistry

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-c r of p pro ite,

CNT scop rs. ctance, spectral, mass, and volitchab as ele as mem and ele ation s are th y cases

There has been a recent upsurge in reports on the in situ assembly/

SWCNTs and graphene (GR)) at the interface between two immiscible of adsorbed carbon

Ts, and adsorbed films ) at non-polarised, liqof preparing transparElectrochemistry Communications 60 (2015) 153–157

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Electrochemistry C j ourna l homepage: www.e lsbands of SWCNTs are the radial breathing mode (RBM), the tangential displacement mode (TG), which is also known as the G band, the ent or modified carbon-coated electrode materials [34–37]. Recently we have extended this approach to the localisation and moreover the functionalisation of CVD GR at the ITIES [38,39]. The Zarbin groupan intimate contact between the carbon nanostructure and the polymeric deposit [4,6]. Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or their composites with CPs and metal nanoparticles can be characterised through Raman spectroscopy [11–14]. The most significant Raman studies have also reported the formation nanomaterial films via self-assembly, such as CN of few-layer GR or reduced graphene-oxide (rGO uid/liquid interfaces, often with the specific aimrials around the aligned CNT “forest”, where the latter is prepared via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) [10]. It has been shown that polymerisation can be advantageously achieved through electrochemical methods, where the CNT is used as the working electrode to produce tion of polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI) at the non-polarised, chloroform/water interface using ferric chloride (FeCl3) as oxidant was reported in 2008 [28], and thereafter several papers described preparation of CPs at the liquid/liquid interface [29–33]. Numerous⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 161 306 2770; fax: + ⁎⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 161 306 4522; fax: +

E-mail addresses: peter.toth@manchester.ac.uk (P.S. T robert.dryfe@manchester.ac.uk (R.A.W. Dryfe). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2015.08.022 1388-2481/© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.Vcan impart an useful ans of the composite [8,9]. grow the polymer matepolymerisation conditions and characterisation of this low oxidation potential thiophene derivative [25,26], and pyrrole derivatives (1methylpyrrole and 1-phenylpyrrole) [27]. The interfacial polymerisa-isotropic component to the physical propertie

One method of achieving such anisotropy is todue to the attractive properties of thes formation can be used to induce condu ume changes [1,2]. These externally sw of important applications of CPs such smart windows, artificial muscles, and trodes [3–7]. The mechanical, thermal can be greatly enhanced by the form (CNT) composite materials: key factor of the compositematerial, which inmanle changes are the basis ctronic devices, sensors, branes or modified elecctronic properties of CPs of CP-carbon nanotube e method of preparation electrolyte solutions (ITIES) [16–20]. The ITIES is a special case of the generic liquid/liquid interface, where the presence of electrolyte in both phases provides external control over charge transfer, specifically ion, electron, and proton-coupled electron transfers [21–23]. Electropolymerisation at the ITIES has been reported: work on 2,2′:5′,2″terthiophene [24], was followed by studies of the influence of differentinterest inmany areas of science and technology e materiduring the last decades als, i.e. the redox transdeposition of nanostructured materials (e.g. photoactive oxides, metallic nanostructures, and low-dimensional carbon species, such asIntrinsically conducting polymers (CPs) have been the focus of greatControlled preparation of carbon nanotube composites at the polarisable organic/wate

P.S. Toth ⁎, A.K. Rabiu, R.A.W. Dryfe ⁎⁎

School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 7 August 2015

Received in revised form 21 August 2015

Accepted 26 August 2015

Available online 3 September 2015

Keywords:

Interfacial polymerisation

Carbon nanotube film

Nanocomposite

The electro-polymerisation (ITIES) is reported. The ap conducting polymer compos

The morphology of the SW and complementary spectro © 2015 The Autho 1. Introduction44 161 275 4598. 44 161 275 4598. oth), . This is an open access article underonducting polymer interface olypyrrole (PPy) at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions ach is used to demonstrate the formation of a carbon nanotube (SWCNT)by performing polymerisation in the presence of an assembly of SWCNT films. /PPy nanocomposites was determined using probe and electron microscopy ic techniques (EDAX, Raman).

Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). disorder induced mode, which shows the density of the defects (D), and the high-frequency two-phonon mode (2D or G′) [15]. ommunications ev ie r .com/ locate /e lecomhave demonstrated interfacial polymerisation using CNT or GR assembled at the non-polarised water/toluene interface to prepare carbon nanomaterial–PANI composites [40–42], mainly using a chemical oxidising agent, i.e. ammonium persulfate. The main advantages of the electro-polymerisation procedures, compared to the chemical route, the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). 154 P.S. Toth et al. / Electrochemistry Communications 60 (2015) 153–157consist of the possibility to control: the nucleation rate and growth by selecting the electro-polymerisation parameters; the thickness of the polymer films by the amount of charge passed during the deposition; and the CPs' morphology using suitable selection of an appropriate solvent and supporting electrolyte [7].

In this communication we report the interfacial electropolymerisation process for the controlled, potentiodynamic preparation of PPy films either at the bare ITIES or on the SWCNTs assembled interface. These free-standing PPy and SWCNT/PPy composite layers are transferable to solid substrates: these functional coatings are characterised using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. 2. Material and methods