Beagle dogs have low susceptibility to BJ94-like H9N2 avian influenza virusby Pei Zhou, Lifang Wang, San Huang, Cheng Fu, Huamei He, Malin Hong, Shuo Su, Shoujun Li

Infection, Genetics and Evolution


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94 a, , Tia




Low susceptible ed ad eag erate novel reassortants, which is significant for poultry and humans. In this study, two groups of beagles f the w , 2007; potential pandemics (Guan et al., 2000; Xu et al., 2007). In 2013 and 2014, the avian influenza A H7N9 virus infected humans and then quickly spread, causing severe mortality in China (Gao et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2014). Additionally, numerous studies have revealed that six internal segments of the H7N9 virus originated from different H9N2 viral groups (Liu et al., 2013, 2014; Qi et al., enza virus (AIV) recent yea such as th , the avian pathogenic H5N1 virus, and the avian low pathogenic H9N (Lin et al., 2012; Song et al., 2012; Songserm et al., 200 et al., 2013). Furthermore, a number of serology studies re that dogs could become infected with H3, H5, H1 and H9 (Su et al., 2014b,c; Sun et al., 2013; Yin et al., 2014). These finding indicated that dogs function as ‘‘mixing vessels’’, similar to pigs, by infecting and reassorting different influenza subtype viruses.

The three different lineages of H9N2 are the BJ94-like, the

G1-like, and the Y439-like or Korean-like lineages, and the prototypes viruses are A/Chicken/Beijing/1/94, A/Quail/HongKong/G1/ ⇑ Corresponding author. Fax: +86 20 85280240.

E-mail address: (S. Li). 1 Equally contributed authors.

Infection, Genetics and Evolution 31 (2015) 216–220

Contents lists availab

Infection, Genetic elsfrom a quail in Hong Kong in late 1997 (Lin et al., 2000; Peiris et al., 1999; Saito et al., 2001). Previous studies have demonstrated that some internal segments of H5N1 were introduced into the H9N2 virus, which indicated that the novel influenza virus could form

H3N2 virus, which derived from the avian influ in 2006 and 2007 (Li et al., 2010). Additionally, in ferent influenza viruses were isolated from dogs, pandemic H1N1 virus, the reassortant H3N1 virus 1567-1348/ 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights, dife 2009 highly 2 virus 6; Sun vealedet al., 2007). Although the H9N2 influenza virus does not cause severe morbidity or mortality in poultry, the H9N2 influenza virus can enhance its pathogenicity towards mammals and poultry by rapid evolution or recombination with other influenza viruses. In 1999, the mild H9N2 influenza virus infected individuals in Hong

Kong and was shown to be similar to another H9N2 virus isolated the novel influenza virus with the H9N2 virus could create a serious threat to public health and requires more attention.

Dogs were considered unsusceptible to influenza viruses for many years, until the equine-origin H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) was first isolated in the United States in 2004 (Crawford et al., 2005). In China, Li and colleagues first isolated the CIV1. Introduction

The H9N2 influenza virus is one o es present in the world (Alexanderwere inoculated either intranasally or intratracheally with the BJ94-like H9N2 virus. However, only four of the seven beagles in the intranasal group and five of the seven beagles in the intratracheal group displayed a mild fever; similarly, only two of the five beagles in the intranasal group and three of the five beagles in the intratracheal group underwent seroconversion. However, no viruses were detected from nasal swabs or rectal swabs or in the lungs of any of the inoculated beagles. Our results demonstrated that beagles have low susceptibility to the BJ94-like H9N2 avian influenza virus, which is the main virus circulating in southern China, indicating that the BJ94-like H9N2 virus does not currently threaten the health of dogs.  2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. idely distributed virusGuan et al., 2000; Xu 2014). On November 30, 2013, a novel reassortant avian influenza

A H10N8 virus caused the death of a 73-year-old woman, and sequence analyses showed that the six internal segments were also from the H9N2 virus (Chen et al., 2014). Therefore, reassortment ofAvailable online 9 February 2015

H9N2 has been circulating in various types of poultry in southern China. Additionally, a number of studies have reported that H9N2 evolves rapidly and is frequently reassorted with H5N1, H7N9, or H10N8 to gen-Beagle dogs have low susceptibility to BJ virus

Pei Zhou a,1, Lifang Wang a,1, San Huang a,1, Cheng Fu aCollege of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wushan Road a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 6 November 2014

Received in revised form 15 January 2015

Accepted 19 January 2015 a b s t r a c t

In China, dogs are consider to be infected with H9N2; there are three different lin journal homepage: www.-like H9N2 avian influenza

Huamei He a, Malin Hong a, Shuo Su a, Shoujun Li a,⇑ nhe District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China significant intermediate hosts of influenza viruses and have been reported ditionally, a reassortant H9N2 virus has been isolated in dogs. Currently, es of H9N2, including BJ94-like, G1-like, and Y439-like lineages; BJ94-like le at ScienceDirect s and Evolution evier .com/locate /meegid

China) by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test according to (H&E), and no viral antigens were detected by the immunohistos andchemical experiment (Fig. 1G). Additionally, only four of seven beagles in the intranasal group and five of seven beagles in the intratracheal group displayed a mild fever, and none of the inoculated animals showed any notable symptoms of disease (Fig. 1A, B and Table 1). Serum antibody levels were measured using hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and two of five remaining beagles in the intranasal group and three of five remaining beagles in the intratracheal group underwent seroconversion (Fig. 1C, D and Table 1). The P value between intranasal group and intratracheal group for mild fever and seroconversion were more than 0.05 which indicated that there are no significant different between intranasal group and intratracheal group for slight fever and seroconversion (Table 1). 3. Discussion