Youssef A. Haddad * do not make truth-conditional contributions to expressions. However, they do make pragmatic contributions in the form of conventional implicatures, triggering an evaluative interpretation of events and depicting speech participants as attitude holders. The main purpose of , (6b), and www.elsevier.com/locate/lingua
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Lingua 145 (2014) 65--103* Tel.: +1 352 273 2958.
E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com. 1(Boneh and Nash, 2010:4). (Examples (1) and (2) are respectively from Webelhuth and Dannenberg, 2006:36
Boneh and Nash, 2010:5, (14i).) (1) Southern American English
They cut them some logs.this article is to provide details about the distribution and interpretation of ADs and to account for their choice of antecedent. I present an analysis within the framework of Accessibility Theory and Context-Linked Grammar to show that an AD is linked to its antecedent as a result of the interplay between syntax and pragmatics. I also address the issue of subject-oriented ADs and explain why they are exempt from Condition B of Binding Theory by adopting a movement approach to binding. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Accessibility Theory; Adjunction; Anti-locality; Binding Theory; Context-Linked Grammar; Intersubjectivity 1. Introduction
It is characteristic of many languages to license structures with non-arguments in the form of applicative (dative) pronouns. Sentences (1) and (2) are examples from Southern American English and French respectively. The applicative pronouns -- in boldface -- do not belong to the thematic grid of the predicates, but theymake a pragmatic contribution to the content of the expressions in which they occur. For example, the speaker in (1) assumes that ‘‘the action expressed has or would have a positive effect on the subject’’ (Horn, 2008:181) or ‘‘adds a pragmatic nuance of the agent’s pleasure’’Department of Languages, Literatures & Cultures, University of Florida, 357 Pugh, PO Box 115565,
Gainesville, FL 32611-5565, USA1
Received 22 February 2013; received in revised form 18 March 2014; accepted 19 March 2014
Lebanese Arabic licenses structures with non-argument dative pronouns that I call attitude datives (ADs). ADs may be co-referential with the subject of the sentence, with the speaker or hearer, or with a topic. ADs do not belong to the thematic grid of predicates, and theyhttp http://dx 0024-38interplay
Attitude datives in Lebanese Arabic and the of syntax and pragmatics://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/yah/. .doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2014.03.006 41/© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (2) French
Jeanne s’est couru trente km.
Jeanne her-ran thirty km ‘Jeanne ran her thirty kilometers.’
The main purpose of this article is to describe and analyze structures that contain similar applicatives in the form of dative clitics in Lebanese Arabic (LA). LA licenses five types of dative pronouns: subject co-referential datives, speaker/ hearer co-referential datives, topic/affected datives, recipient/beneficiary datives, and possessive datives (see Al-Zahre and Boneh, 2010). The focus will be on the first three types; I call these attitude datives. The last two types are excluded for
Na:dya sˇtaɣalit-la: sˇi nisˁ se:ʕa h e n
A l e h t tive construction. They contain a dative pronoun whose : mil ski ski m o the mountains, a storm comes [him] and shuts the roads.’ d pients or beneficiaries. The two types are different, however.
Y.A. Haddad / Lingua 145 (2014) 65--10366 e tains to beneficiaries. These have been analyzed as arguments and as adjuncts (see Beck and n i x deserves its own analysis, a task that I leave for another occasion. However, I do examine their t o clude them from the analysis, along with possessive datives, and only include what I call attitude .distribu dativesion in secti n 2 in order to explain why I ex
Johnsoname is no , 2004 andt innocent, esp work cited withcially as it per n). Their synta3 The pronouns nly in those in tances whereis a sub form ofject pro-drop language in which all finite verbs show agreement with the subject. I include this agreement information in the gloss in the o s the subject is not pronounced.Recipients and beneficiaries -- sometimes also referred to as secondary arguments -- are crucially part of the truth condition of a statement, a point that will become clear shortly and that will be revisited in section 3. In addition, their interpretation and distribution are sensitive to the selecting predicate and to the presence of a volitional subject who intends for them to be recipients or beneficiaries (e.g., Baker, 1988; Bowers and Georgala, 2007; Goldberg, 1995). This is why I will refer to them as argument datives and contrast them with non-argument attitude datives.3 2 The English translation may not always sound grammatical in English, as it tries to capture the LA meaning and structure. In the translation of (3a--b) and examples below, I include the datives in square brackets in the order and positions where they occur in LA. I follow this approach throughout except in the examples where I explicitly separate the truth-conditional meaning from the conventionally implicated meaning. Also, LAAffected atives look similar to datives functioning as reci‘Every ti e Ziad decides to go on a skiing trip t come-him.DAT storm and-shut the-roads btizˇi:-lo ʕa:sˁfe w-bitsakkir l-tˁirʔa:t
Ziad whenever he.decide go to-the-mountain doc. Ziya:d kilma: biʔarrir yru ħ ʔa-l-zˇabal yaʕ ‘Her husband works [her] night and day (all the time).’Nadia son-her spend-her.DAT all time-his sleeping ‘Nadia, her son spends [her] all his time sleeping.’ b. zˇawz-a: byisˇtiɣil-la: le:l nha:r husband-her work-her.DAT night day(4) Topic/Affected dative construction a. Na:dyai ʔibn-a: biʔadˁdˁi:-la:i kil waʔt-o ne:yimalso expres es the speaker’s attitude of empathy toward the affectee. refere t, the speaker believes, is/was affected physically or emotionally by t s n he event depicted by the predicate. The dativeThe sent nces in (4) are instances of t e topic/affec ed da‘Ziad spends [me/you] all his time sleeping.’