Antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosaby Xianfei Xie, Guolin Zou, Chenghai Li

Carbohydrate Polymers


Organic Chemistry / Materials Chemistry / Polymers and Plastics


Carbohydrate Polymers 132 (2015) 323–329

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Carbohydrate Polymers j ourna l ho me page: www.elsev ier .com/ locate /carbpol

Antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of a polysac

Xianfei X a Department o b College of Life a a r t i c l

Article history:

Received 5 Ap

Received in re

Accepted 9 Jun

Available onlin


Chaenomeles s



Immunomodu chari 100 c s com atio o ncrea

A) an sis w e hyp gs su ctivit 1. Introduction

Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai (Rosaceae) is a well-known food in Chi medicine (J have shown cological ac antitumor,

Zheng, 2003 has suggest other organ (Chen & We

Cancer i

The great identified a (Borchers, research in plants and may be use humans to ∗ Correspon

Wuhan Univer fax: +86 27 68

E-mail add

Most polysaccharides derived from higher plants are relatively nontoxic and do not cause significant side effects compared with synthetic compounds, and hence they are ideal candidates for http://dx.doi.o 0144-8617/© na, and its dried fruit is commonly used in traditional iangsu New Medical College, 1977). Modern studies that C. speciosa has a variety of biological and pharmativities such as immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects (Dai, Wei, Shen, & ; Xie, Cai, Zhu, & Zou, 2007; Zhang et al., 2010). Evidence that carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, tannins and ic acids are the main ingredients of C. speciosa fruits i, 2003; Chen, Wu, & Dai, 2000; Li & He, 2005). s one of the major causes of human death worldwide. majority of chemical compounds, which have been s cytotoxic to cancer cells, are also toxic to normal cells

Stern, Hackman, Keen, & Gershwin, 1999). Recently, terest has focused on polysaccharides from various herbs with immune-stimulating properties, which ful complementary or alternative medicine in helping reduce the risk of cancer as well as infectious disease. ding author at: Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School, sity, Wuhan 430072, PR China. Tel.: +86 27 68758665; 759222. ress: (X. Xie). modern medicine (Wang, Chen, Jia, Tang, & Ma, 2012; Zhang, Li,

Xiong, Jiang, & Lai, 2013). Therefore, discovery and evaluation of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties have emerged as one of the important research fields in chemistry and biology (Fan, Ding, Ai, & Deng, 2012; Li et al., 2012).

Polysaccharides from C. speciosa have been found to be involved in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities (Li & Chen, 2011;

Liu, Wang, Lu, Ma, & Zhang, 2011a). However the antitumor and immunoregulatory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from C. speciosa have not previously been investigated, in this regard the objectives of this study are to elucidate the isolation and characterization of the biological polysaccharide from C. speciosa and evaluate its antitumor and immunomodulatory activities on the immune response in tumor-bearing mice by using both in vitro and in vivo assay. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Materials and reagents

Dried fruits of C. speciosa were collected from Changyang in

Hubei Province (China). A voucher specimen was deposited in the herbarium of College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, China. rg/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.06.046 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.charide from Chaenomeles speciosa iea,b,∗, Guolin Zoub, Chenghai Lib f Pharmacology, Basic Medical School, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China

Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR Chin e i n f o ril 2015 vised form 8 June 2015 e 2015 e 20 June 2015 peciosa s lation a b s t r a c t

In this study, a water-soluble polysac by DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex Gweight of about 6.3 × 104 Da and wa arabinose (Ara) with a relative molar r tumor transplanted in mice, but also i mice. Moreover, concanavalin A (Con and peritoneal macrophage phagocyto treatment could improve delayed typ and IFN- in serum. The overall findin with its potent immunostimulatory a water-soluble de (CSP) was successfully purified from Chaenomeles speciosa olumn chromatography. CSP had a weight-average molecular posed of glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), rhamnose (Rha) and f 4.6:1.3:0.8:0.5. CSP could not only inhibit the growth of S180 se the relative spleen index and body weight of tumor bearing d lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced splenocyte proliferation ere also enhanced after CSP administration. Furthermore, CSP ersensitivity (DTH) and promote the secretion of IL-2, TNF- ggest that the antitumor effect of CSP is might be associated y. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 324 X. Xie et al. / Carbohydrate Polymers 132 (2015) 323–329

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetra zolium bromide (MTT), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 2,4dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), standard sugars and T-series dextran we

USA). RPMI purchased f (CTX) was

China). DE from Amer reagents us 2.2. Extract

Dried p under stirri w/v) and re polysacchar (1:4, v/v), t complete. A 30 min at 4 dissolved in ing the free precipitate. and precipi was collecte acetone and polysacchar

The crud (100 ml) an phy column and a gradi by the phe with high co purified by matography

One purifie 2.3. Analys 2.3.1. Chem

Total ca by phenol– the standa

The protein sured accor (Bradford, 1


Hansen, 19 2.3.2. Homo

The hom by high-pe on a LC-1

Japan). TSK tained at 3 rate = 0.5 m (2 mg) was a 0.45 m fi reference t standard of

T-2000). 2.3.3. Mono

The iden polysacchar (Liu et al., 2011a; Liu et al., 2011b). CSP (10 mg) were hydrolyzed with 2 M TFA at 100 ◦C for 2 h, and converted to their alditol acetates as previously described (Honda, Suzuki, Kakehi, Honda, & Takai, 1981). The resulting alditol-acetates was analyzed on an Agilent nstru apilla n wa rate gas