Antimicrobial effects of modified chitosan based coating containing nanoemulsion of essential oils, modified atmosphere packaging and gamma irradiation against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on green beansby Renato Severino, Giovanna Ferrari, Khanh Dang Vu, Francesco Donsì, Stéphane Salmieri, Monique Lacroix

Food Control

About

Year
2015
DOI
10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.08.029
Subject
Food Science / Biotechnology

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Text

Accepted Manuscript

Antimicrobial effects of modified chitosan based coating containing nanoemulsion of essential oils, modified atmosphere packaging and gamma irradiation against

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on green beans

Renato Severino, Dr. Giovanna Ferrari, Khanh Dang Vu, Francesco Donsì, Stéphane

Salmieri, Dr. Monique Lacroix

PII: S0956-7135(14)00478-2

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.08.029

Reference: JFCO 4029

To appear in: Food Control

Received Date: 10 March 2014

Revised Date: 22 August 2014

Accepted Date: 26 August 2014

Please cite this article as: Severino R., Ferrari G., Vu K.D., Donsì F., Salmieri S. & Lacroix M.,

Antimicrobial effects of modified chitosan based coating containing nanoemulsion of essential oils, modified atmosphere packaging and gamma irradiation against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and

Salmonella Typhimurium on green beans, Food Control (2014), doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.08.029.

This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 1

Antimicrobial effects of modified chitosan based coating containing nanoemulsion of essential oils, modified atmosphere packaging and gamma irradiation against

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on green beans

Renato Severino1,2, Giovanna Ferrari1,3*, Khanh Dang Vu2, Francesco Donsì3, Stéphane

Salmieri2, Monique Lacroix2* 1

ProdAl Scarl, Competence Center on Agro-Food Productions, via Ponte don Melillo, 84084, Fisciano (SA), Italy 2 Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Canadian Irradiation Center, INRS-Institut

Armand-Frappier, Institute of Nutraceutical and Functional Foods, 531, Boulevard des Prairies, Laval,

Québec, Canada, H7V 1B7. 3

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084,

Fisciano (SA), Italy *

Corresponding authors. Dr. Monique Lacroix, Tel: 450-687-5010 # 4489, Fax: 450-686-5501, Email: Monique.Lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca; and Dr. Giovanna Ferrari, Tel: 089 964134; Fax: 089 964168; Email: gferrari@unisa.it.

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Abstract

The antibacterial activity of modified chitosan-based coatings containing nanoemulsion of essential oils (EOs), gamma irradiation, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), alone or in combinations, against

Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated on inoculated green bean samples. Firstly, four different nanoemulsions, made of carvacrol, mandarin, bergamot and lemon Eos, respectively, were compared in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the two bacteria evaluated in vitro using the micro-broth dilution method. Carvacrol nanoemulsion resulted to be the most effective antibacterial agent and was therefore selected to be incorporated into modified chitosan (MC) to form a bioactive coating. Secondly, the radiosensitivity of E. coli and S.

Typhimurium to gamma irradiation was evaluated on inoculated green beans after coating deposition and MAP. Results showed that, without MAP, MC-based coating containing carvacrol nanoemulsion significantly increased the radiosensitization of E. coli and S. Typhimurium by 1.32-fold and 1.30-fold, respectively. Remarkably, the use of bioactive coating under MAP caused a synergistic effect with an increase in radiosensitivity by 1.80-fold and 1.89-fold for E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively.

Thirdly, the antibacterial effects of the antimicrobial coating, gamma irradiation, MAP alone and their combinations were evaluated against these two bacteria during a 13-days storage of green beans at 4 °C. Bioactive coating deposition or gamma irradiation treatment resulted effective in controlling the growth of the two bacteria during the entire shelf-life. Moreover, it was also found that the combined treatment of antimicrobial coating, gamma irradiation and MAP caused the reduction of microbial population to undetectable levels during the whole storage period for E. coli and from day 7 to the end of storage for S. Typhimurium. The obtained results can be interested to food companies aiming to ensure the food safety with a prolonged shelf life.

Key words: modified atmosphere packaging, essential oils, gamma irradiation, antimicrobial coating,

Escherichia coli O157: H7, Salmonella Typhimurium

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 3 1. Introduction

During recent years there has been an increasing demand for healthy and safe foods, as a consequence of some serious food illnesses caused by consumption of foods contaminated by foodborne pathogens.

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that each year in the United States 48 million people get sick due to foodborne diseases. Thermal processing is able to efficiently inactivate spoilage and pathogen bacteria in food, but with a huge impact on nutritional and organoleptic food properties (Raso et al., 2003). Therefore, researchers are investigating non thermal methods to reduce pathogens and simultaneously to ensure the safety and quality of the produce (Birmpa et al., 2013). The use of irradiation to control foodborne pathogens in vegetables is well documented (Caillet et al., 2006;

Takala et al., 2011); however the use of radiation to kill pathogens is limited because radiation may induce adverse effects on the sensory quality of the food products, especially, at high irradiation doses.

Because degradation of sensory quality by irradiation is dose dependent, reduction of the treatment dose would result in improved sensory quality of the treated products (Lacroix et al., 1991).An increase in the radiation sensitivity of the target microorganisms would therefore result in lower doses required for lethality. The combination of irradiation in presence of active compounds, like bioactive edible coating, and in presence of modified atmosphere packaging would help to increase the radiosensitization of food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium, without affecting the sensory quality of food products.