Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) and its derivativesby Jin Ran, Liang Wu, Yanfei Ru, Min Hu, Liang Din, Tongwen Xu

Polym. Chem.

About

Similar

Thermal oxidation and photo-oxidation of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)

Authors:
P. G. Kelleher, L. B. Jassie, B. D. Gesner
1967

Thermodynamic miscibility of polystyrene–poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) blends

Authors:
Giuseppa DiPaola-Baranyi, Jocelyn Richer, William M. Prest Jr.
1985

Modified Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether)s Prepared by Redistribution

Authors:
Huub A. M. van Aert, Marcel H. P. van Genderen, Grègory J. M. L. van Steenpaal, Laurent Nelissen, E. W. Meijer, Juraj Liska
1997

Text

This is an Accepted Manuscript, which has been through the

Royal Society of Chemistry peer review process and has been accepted for publication.

Accepted Manuscripts are published online shortly after acceptance, before technical editing, formatting and proof reading.

Using this free service, authors can make their results available to the community, in citable form, before we publish the edited article. We will replace this Accepted Manuscript with the edited and formatted Advance Article as soon as it is available.

You can find more information about Accepted Manuscripts in the

Information for Authors.

Please note that technical editing may introduce minor changes to the text and/or graphics, which may alter content. The journal’s standard Terms & Conditions and the Ethical guidelines still apply. In no event shall the Royal Society of Chemistry be held responsible for any errors or omissions in this Accepted Manuscript or any consequences arising from the use of any information it contains.

Accepted Manuscript www.rsc.org/polymers

Polymer

Chemistry

View Article Online

View Journal

This article can be cited before page numbers have been issued, to do this please use: J. Ran, L. Wu, Y.

Ru, M. Hu, L. Din and T. Xu, Polym. Chem., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C4PY01671H.

Journal Name RSCPublishing

MINIREVIEW

This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013 J. Name., 2013, 00, 1-3 | 1

Cite this: DOI: 10.1039/x0xx00000x

Received 00th January 2012,

Accepted 00th January 2012

DOI: 10.1039/x0xx00000x www.rsc.org/

Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) based on

Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) and its derivatives

Jin Ran, a

Liang Wu, a

Yanfei Ru, a

Min Hu, a

Liang Din, a and Tongwen Xu* a ,

Polymeric anion exchange membranes (AEMs) attract increasing attention, because they have prominent roles in various energy and environment-related fields. The most important prerequisite toward high performance AEMs is to search for an appropriate base polymeric material, which should be chemically stable and easily handled for fabricating AEMs.

Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) is considered to be a promising candidate since it enables versatile routes to obtain high performance AEMs. Furthermore, the properties of these AEMs can be feasibly adjusted and controlled to meet various application requirements.

In this review, recent progresses in PPO based AEMs are comprehensively presented. Herein, we highlight the strategies used for designing PPO based AEMs and hope to provide promising principles, concepts, and routes into the synthesis of other polymers based AEMs. 1. Introduction 1

Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) play significant roles in 2 numerous fields. Current research focuses on the development 3 of IEMs for separation processes and energy conversion 4 devices,1-4 which can be applied to electrodialysis and diffusion 5 dialysis for industrial wastes treatment.5 More recently, there 6 are increasing interests in various electrochemical energy 7 generation and storage systems, including polymer electrolyte 8 membrane fuel cells,6-11 redox flow batteries (RFBs),12,13 9 reverse electrodialysis cells (REDs),14,15 microbial fuel cells 10 (MFCs),16 and hydrogen production (water electrolysis and 11 artificial photosynthesis based membrane).17,18 These 12 technologies rely upon IEMs that separate and transport ions 13 between the anode and cathode.19 These IEMs should meet 14 several requirements: reasonable ionic conductivity, good 15 chemical and dimensional stability, long-term durability in the 16 actual operating environment, mechanical toughness, and 17 sufficient heat tolerance.20,21 18

IEMs for practical applications are broadly divided into cation 19 exchange membranes (CEMs) and anion exchange membranes 20 (AEMs). AEMs provide an environment for electrochemical 21 reactions at high pH that may reduce the need for platinum 22 catalysts in electrochemical devices such as fuel cells.22-25 23

However, the investigations about AEMs based systems are 24 still in their infancy, which is mainly due to the development 25 lag of AEMs. To date, there are no readily available AEMs that 26 serve as the standard-bearer, while commercially available 27

Nafion (Dupont) membranes as state-of-the-art CEMs have 28 driven the progresses of CEMs related process.26 29

There have been significant advances in preparing AEMs from 30 a variety of polymer main chains ranging from poly(olefin)s, 31 poly(styrene)s, poly(phenylene)s, poly(ether sulfone)s, 32 poly(ether imide)s, and poly(arylene ether)s to organic–33 inorganic hybrid composites. 27-31 The AEMs can be obtained 34 by chloromethylation of these polymers and followed by 35 reaction with trimethylamine (TMA) to form 36 benzyltrimethylammonium groups. Although it contributes to 37 the progresses of AEMs, this route is especially environmental 38 unfriendly and relatively complicated. In the chloromethylation, 39 the commonly used chloromethyl methyl ether (CME) and bis-40 chloromethylether (BCME), are considered to be carcinogens. 41

Their usage have been restricted since the 1970s and thus large-42 scale production is limited.32-34 43

To overcome this hurdle, poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide) 44 (PPO) as a potential candidate has been extensively studied to 45 produce AEMs by both our group and other researchers. Apart 46 from its excellent physicochemical properties, the most 47 attractive advantage lies on the easy and controlled preparation 48 procedures to obtain AEMs. The original route is as follows: 49

PPO is brominated to access benzylhalide groups for 50 subsequent quaternization as an alternative to 51 chloromethylation.35 Consequently, studies about PPO and its 52 derivative AEMs are moving forward all the time. 53

In this review, key developments in PPO-based AEMs are 54 discussed: (1) AEMs prepared from bromination of PPO 55 (BPPO), (2) AEMs prepared from PPO through Friedel-Crafts 56 acylation, (3) AEMs prepared from PPO derivatives through in-57 situ polymerization, (4) inorganic-organic AEMs prepared from 58