An endocrine cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm for routing recovery problem of wireless sensor networks with multiple mobile sinksby Yi-Fan Hu, Yong-Sheng Ding, Li-Hong Ren, Kuang-Rong Hao, Hua Han

Information Sciences

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13 Q1 4 5 6 7 8 Q2 9 a Engineering Research Center of Digitized Textile & Fashion Technology, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, 201620 Shanghai, PR China 10 bCollege of Information Sciences and Technology, Don 11 c Shandong Computer Science Center (National SupercQ3 12 d Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computer Ne 13 eCollege of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Shan 14 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Q4 24 25 26 27 28 2 9 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 ysical objects [5]. 51 ncy identification 52 d coopera 53 oTs is to fa 54 suitable WSNs technologies based on an efficient standard protocol to support the network of things [10,6]. 55 Several data dissemination protocols have been proposed for the WSNs with a static sink [21,26,29]. For examp 56 directed diffusion approach [11] assumes that each sink needs to periodically flood its location information through the http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2014.11.052 0020-0255/ 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. ⇑ Corresponding author at: College of Information Sciences and Technology, Donghua University, 201620 Shanghai, PR China. Tel.: +86 21 67792301; fax: +86 21 67792353.

E-mail address: ysding@dhu.edu.cn (Y. Ding).

Information Sciences xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Information Sciences journal homepage: www.elsevier .com/locate / ins

INS 11311 No. of Pages 14, Model 3G 2 January 2015

Q211. Introduction

The Internet-of-Things (IoTs) are regarded as the extension of current Internet to the real world of ph

The basic idea of IoT is pervasively providing us with a variety of things or objects, such as radio freque (RFID) tags, sensors, wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and mobile phones, which are able to interact an each other to realize the tasks of communication, computation, and service. An important direction of the IPlease cite this article in press as: Y. Hu et al., An endocrine cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm for routing recover lem of wireless sensor networks with multiple mobile sinks, Inform. Sci. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2014.11.052te with cilitate le, theEndocrine cooperative mechanism algorithm. By using this method, the alternative path from source nodes to the sink with the optimal QoS parameters can be selected. Simulation results show that our routing protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption.  2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 9 December 2011

Received in revised form 4 November 2014

Accepted 19 November 2014

Available online xxxx

Keywords:

Wireless sensor networks

Multiple mobile sinks

Routing recovery

PSO algorithmghua University, 201620 Shanghai, PR China omputer Center in Jinan), 250014 Jinan, PR China twork, 250014 Jinan, PR China ghai University of Engineering Science, 201620 Shanghai, PR China a b s t r a c t

In the wireless sensor networks with multiple mobile sinks, the movement of sinks or failure of sensor nodes may lead to the breakage of the existing routes. In most routing protocols, the query packets are broadcasted to repair a broken path from source node to sink, which cause significant communication overhead in terms of both energy and delay. In order to repair broken path with lower communication overhead, we propose an efficient routing recovery protocol with endocrine cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm (ECPSOA) to establish and optimize the alternative path. In the

ECPSOA, mutation direction of the particle is determined by multi-swarm evolution equation, and its diversity is enriched by the endocrine mechanism, which can enhance the capacity of global search and improve the speed of convergence and accuracy of theAn endocrine cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm for routing recovery problem of wireless sensor networks with multiple mobile sinks

Yifan Hu a,b,c,d, Yongsheng Ding a,b,⇑, Lihong Ren a,b, Kuangrong Hao a,b, Hua Han a,ey prob57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 needs to flood its location information throughout the entire network to announce a new adaptive area. 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 2 Y. HuQ2 et al. / Information Sciences xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

INS 11311 No. of Pages 14, Model 3G 2 January 2015

Q21The Two-Tier Data Dissemination (TTDD) [18] represents the early work on data dissemination of the WSNs with mobile sinks. The protocol initially builds a grid structure which divides the network into cells with several dissemination nodes.

When the sink requests data, the query packets are flooded locally within the cell until it reaches a dissemination node.

A data path from the source to the dissemination node is then established. But the TTDD is not suitable for applications where the flooding area expands as the cell size grows, while a small sized grid structure incurs high overhead for the grid construction.

The Intelligent Agent-Based Routing Protocol (IAR) [13] provides efficient data delivery to mobile sinks. The IAR algorithm reduces signal overhead and improves degraded route called triangular routing problem. The sink periodically examines its distance from the current immediate relay, initiates a new relay path establishment, and reduces the packet loss as the experiment results and signaling overhead.

However, the routing recovery mechanism for the movement of multiple mobile sinks and sensor node failure has rarely been considered. As the fault-tolerant optimization problem to find the optimal routing is a NP-hard one, the heuristic deterministic methods always fall into local optimum, and obtain the approximate optimal routing result. Moreover, in these routing protocols, packets are broadcasted to repair a broken route from source node to sink, which causes significant communication overhead in terms of both energy and delay.