A mixture design study to determine interaction effects of wheat, buckwheat, and rice flours in an aqueous model systemby Mustafa Tahsin Yilmaz, Önder Yildiz, Bayram Yurt, Omer Said Toker, Safa Karaman, Ayhan Baştürk

LWT - Food Science and Technology


Food Science


DNA fingerprinting of serial Candida albicans isolates obtained during itraconazole prophylaxis in patients with AIDS

A. M. Le Monte, M. Goldman, M. L. Smedema, P. A. Connolly, D. S. McKinsey, G. A. Cloud, C. A. Kauffman, L. J. Wheat, National Institute Of Allergy and I

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Pereira, & Junqueira, 2004), dairy products, gums and hydrocolloids (Lazaridou, Duta, Papageorgiou, Belc, & Biliaderis, 2007), proteins from different flour sources (Marco & Rosell, 2008) and prebiotics (Korus, Grzelak, Achremowicz, & Sabat, 2006) have been recently used to mimic its technological functions. Use of rice and v, 2011; Torbica, of such flours is fined, unenriched n to enhance some n of pseudocereals ulations, a limited lacement of wheat more, no attempt ative flour sources oducts (Gallagher, 2008). However, in order to control effects of these mentioned alternative ingredients, it is essential to have information on their interactions in any product environment.

So far, a number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the effect of different flours on several properties of dough and final products. In such studies, effect of each flour was evaluated, independently. However, in order to reach exact results, their interaction effects should also be analyzed using a statistical tool allowing investigation of functions of the ingredients and approval of * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ90 352 207 66 66x32754; fax: þ90 352 437 5784.

Contents lists availab

LWT - Food Science w.e

LWT - Food Science and Technology 61 (2015) 583e589E-mail address: skaraman@erciyes.edu.tr (S. Karaman).A great amount of efforts have been recently exerted to develop gluten-free products by removal of gluten from cereal-based products, such as bread, biscuit, pasta and cake, which brings some remarkable technological challenges. These challenges are gaining desired viscoelasticity, gas holding ability and crumb structure of dough and batter in the absence of gluten which achieves all of these functions alone. Other challenges are the risks to obtain low quality, poor mouthfeel and low flavor products (Gallagher, Gormley, & Arendt, 2004). To overcome the mentioned problems, some alternative ingredients such as starches (Lopez, respect (Sakac, Torbica, Sedej, & HadnaCe

HadnaCev, & HadnaCev, 2012). However, use limited since manufacturers still prefer to use re other flour sources (Gallagher, 2008).

Although some steps have recently been take technological properties through the introductio and other nutritive flours in bread and pasta form number of studies have been reported on the rep flour in cake-making (Gallagher, 2008). Further has still appeared to be done on the use of altern like buckwheat flour in the production of cake pr1. Introduction buckwheat flours has recently received a great attention, in thisAccepted 25 November 2014

Available online 29 November 2014






Mixture designhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.11.045 0023-6438/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.effect on these properties, but their interaction effects were more remarkable on pasting properties, furthermore reversing the way of linear effects on textural properties. The results of this study revealed that buckwheat and rice flours should be used as a combination in the baking formulations when lower breakdown viscosity values are requested. It was also found that the use of rice flour with buckwheat flour as a combination increased viscosity of the flour mixture, but decreased retrogradation and syneresis rate. On the other hand, use of wheat flour in combination with buckwheat flour resulted in lower hardness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience in the flour mixture. These results revealing the interaction effects should suggest very advantageous findings for baking industry because they would have an opportunity to have a free hand in controlling these texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters in accordance with their purposes by considering these interaction results. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Article history:

Received 4 May 2014 flours on pasting and textural properties of an aqueous model system. Each flour type had a markedMixture design approach was used to study effects of interactions between wheat, buckwheat and riceA mixture design study to determine in buckwheat, and rice flours in an aqueou

Mustafa Tahsin Yilmaz a, €Onder Yildiz b, Bayram Yu

Safa Karaman c, *, Ayhan Bas¸türk b a Yıldız Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Food Eng b Igdir University, Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, 76000 Igdir, Turk c Erciyes University, Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, 38039 Kayseri, journal homepage: wwraction effects of wheat, model system b, Omer Said Toker a, ing Department, 34210 _Istanbul, Turkey ey le at ScienceDirect and Technology lsevier .com/locate/ lwt 2.2. Rapid visco analyzer (RVA) measurements

Pasting properties of flour mixture (FM) samples were determined using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (Perten RVA 4500, Australia). 3 g of each FM (Table 1) sample at 14 g/100 g moisture basis was directly weighed into aluminum RVA canisters. Then, 25 mL of distilled water was added to achieve a total weight of 28 g. The formed slurry samples (aqueous flour mixture dispersion) were heated to 50 C and stirred at 160 rpm for 10 s. Then, the samples were held at 50 C for 1 min, and then heated up to 95 C for 3.42 min and held at that temperature for 5 min, and cooled down to 50 C for 6.18 min. Values measured from the pasting profile of each FM sample were peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, peak time and pasting temperature. Thermocline windows software was used to process the recorded data (Perten RVA 4500, Australia). All measurements were repeated three times with three replications. ce and Technology 61 (2015) 583e589importance of the ingredient interactions (Arteaga, Li-Chan, Nakai,

Cofrades, & Jimenez-Colmenero, 1993). Mixture design methodology is very useful in this purpose which is applied to predict response for any combination of the ingredients, to determine effects of the ingredients on the responses of each component individually and in combinationwith the other components and to find optimumvalues in order achieve targeted response values (Cornell, 2002). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of flour type (wheat, buckwheat and rice) on pasting properties of flour mixture samples and textural properties of aqueous model system gel mixture samples using the simplex lattice mixture design. 2. Material and methods 2.1. Materials and determination of proximate composition