A contrastive study of Japanese and Korean negative sensitive items: a grammaticalization approachby KangHun Park

Language Sciences


Linguistics and Language / Language and Linguistics


LXVIII. The Abbot and Convent of Woburn to the King

Thabbot and convent of Woburn

Regulatory approaches to the control of environmental mutagens and carcinogens

Members and Consultant of Committee

DNA fingerprinting of serial Candida albicans isolates obtained during itraconazole prophylaxis in patients with AIDS

A. M. Le Monte, M. Goldman, M. L. Smedema, P. A. Connolly, D. S. McKinsey, G. A. Cloud, C. A. Kauffman, L. J. Wheat, National Institute Of Allergy and I

Detection and characterization of metallo beta lactamases producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

A Manoharan, S Chatterjee, D Mathai, SARI Study Group


Jap items: a grammaticalizat

KangHun Park*

Department of Japanese Language & Culture, Jeonju U a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 3 December 2013

Received in revised form 21 June 2014

Accepted 30 June 2014

Available online


Dialect contact

Synonymic collision phor, specialization,

SIs in Japanese and sses into NSIs/post. All rights reserved.

Abbreviations: ACC, accusative marker; ASP, aspect marker; CL, classifier; COM, comitative; COMP, complementizer; DECL, declarative; DAT, dative; GEN, genitive; Ins, instrument; LOC, locative; NEG, negative; NMLZ, nominalizer; NOM, nominative marker; PASS, passive; PAST, past tense; PL, plural; POSS, possibility; PRES, present tense; Q, interrogative marker; QUO, quotative marker; SFP, Sentence Final Particle; SOU, source; TOP, topic marker. * Tel.: þ82 63 220 4661 (office), þ82 10 3348 0318 (mobile); fax: þ82 63 220 2050.

E-mail addresses: hun0531@naver.com, hun007@hotmail.com.

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Language Sciences journal homepage: www.elsevier .com/locate/ langsci

Language Sciences 45 (2014) 152–172contact, synonymic collision, unidirectionality, decategorization, meta degrammaticalization and frequency, this paper argues that the N

Korean show differences in the patterns of grammaticalization proce positional particles.  2014 Elsevier Ltdanother good approach which carries out a cross-linguistic study for examining the nature of the NSIs Japanese and Korean. Focusing on some theoretical issues such as dialectDegrammaticalization


Postpositional particleshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2014.06.020 0388-0001/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.ion approach niversity, 303 Cheonjam-ro Wansan-gu, Jeonju, 560-759 Republic of Korea a b s t r a c t

Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Japanese and Korean are words (or expressions) used only in negative contexts. Negative Sensitivity in Japanese and Korean, as in many other languages, is an intricate phenomenon which involves syntactic, semantic and even pragmatic dimensions. Recently there has been a growing interest in the nature of sika-nai (sika) ‘only’ in Japanese and pakkey-anhta (pakkey) ‘only’ in Korean whose meanings are similar to each other. In relation to this point, this paper treats another similar NSI, hoka-nai (hoka) ‘only’ in Japanese, which the previous relevant studies have comparatively neglected. What makes the NSIs in Japanese and Korean further intriguing as an object of inquiry are (i) their synchrony and diachrony, in particular their grammaticalization processes into the NSIs and (ii) their typological and areal linguistic properties. This paper has two goals. The first is to examine how sika/hoka in Japanese and pakkey in Korean are different. In addition, this paper explores how hoka is different from sika and pakkey. In fact, most previous studies treat sika and pakkey as the same expressions. So are sika and hoka.

The second goal is to explain what makes the discrepancies between sika, hoka and pakkey.

In other words, this study clarifies what theoretical issues bring about these discrepancies.

In pursuit of those goals, this paper employs panchronic and cross-linguistic approaches. In particular, this study focuses on the grammaticalization processes into NSIs/postpositional particles of sika, hoka and pakkey. For this reason, this study is entirely different from the past ones, in that it explains the linguistic differences between sika, hoka and pakkey by the grammaticalization approach. Furthermore, this paper proposes innovative conclusions related to the NSIs in Japanese and Korean, which the previous studies have never pointed out. Additionally, this study holds that the framework of grammaticzalization can beA contrastive study of anese and Korean negative sensitive 1. Introduction

By using the grammaticalization approach, this paper explains the differences of the Negative Sensitive Items1 (NSIs, hereafter) between sika ‘only’ in Japanese and pakkey ‘only’ in Korean, as seen in (1) and (2). (1) a. Taroo-wa ringo-sika tabe-nak-atta. -TOP apple-SIKA eat-NEG-PAST ‘Taro ate only an apple’. b. *Taroo-wa ringo-sika tabe-ta. -TOP apple-SIKA eat-PAST (2) a. Chelswu-nun sakwa-pakkey mek-ci anh-ass-ta. -TOP apple-PAKKEY eat-COMP NEG-PAST-DECL problems in relatio tive analyses focusing on the grammaticalization approach and ri een sika and pakkey differs (ii) as well as how sika is related to hoka. 1 In pr s s es ive Polarity Item (NPI), (ii) Negative Concord Item (NCI), and (iii) Negative Sensitive Item. Following Sells (2001), Kataoka (2006), inter alia, this paper employs the term Negative Sensitive Item, because not all NSIs in

Japanese and Korean a I is employed as a neutral terminology for negative expressions in Japanese and

Korean. 2 There also ex ex se and Korean; -dake in Japanese and -man in Korean, as shown in (i). (i) a. Taroo-w ‘ a b. Chelswu-nun sakwa-man mek-ess-ta.

KangHun Park / Language Sciences 45 (2014) 152–172 153-TOP apple MAN eat-PAST-DECL ‘Chelswu ate only an apple’.

Kim (2001) and Hong (2002) argue that Japanese -dake and Korean -man correspond to each other. However, there is a general consensus that –sika is functionally different from –dake in Japanese even though they have the same meaning. This is the same as –pakkey and –man in Korean (See Kuno, 1999 for

Japanese and Kuno and Kim, 1999; Sells, 2001 for Korean).Taropressions that have a meaning of ‘only’ in Japane a ringo-dake tabe-ta.

TOP apple DAKE eat-PAST te only an apple’.istre classified as NPIs or NCIs. In other words, NSeviou tudiSection 5 provides summary findings. , the three different terminologies have been used as follows: (i) Negatcla n to the previous studies. Section 4 proposes some alterna fies (i) howmuch the grammaticalization processes betw‘Chelswu ate only an apple’. b. *Chelswu-nun sakwa-pakkey mek-ess-ta. -TOP apple-PAKKEY eat-PAST-DECL

These expressions, sika and pakkey, can appear only in negative contexts, and they form constructions with the meaning of ‘only’ with negations such as –nai in Japanese or –anh-ta in Korean.2